Table of Contents
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 2014, Article ID 108291, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/108291
Review Article

Genetics of Sub-Saharan African Human Population: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria

1Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda
2School of Allied Health Sciences, International Health Sciences University, P.O. Box 7782, Kampala, Uganda

Received 28 April 2014; Revised 9 July 2014; Accepted 1 August 2014; Published 18 August 2014

Academic Editor: Yoko Satta

Copyright © 2014 Gerald Mboowa. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa has continued leading in prevalence and incidence of major infectious disease killers such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Epidemiological triad of infectious diseases includes susceptible host, pathogen, and environment. It is imperative that all aspects of vertices of the infectious disease triad are analysed to better understand why this is so. Studies done to address this intriguing reality though have mainly addressed pathogen and environmental components of the triad. Africa is the most genetically diverse region of the world as well as being the origin of modern humans. Malaria is relatively an ancient infection in this region as compared to TB and HIV/AIDS; from the evolutionary perspective, we would draw lessons that this ancestrally unique population now under three important infectious diseases both ancient and exotic will be skewed into increased genetic diversity; moreover, other evolutionary forces are also still at play. Host genetic diversity resulting from many years of malaria infection has been well documented in this population; we are yet to account for genetic diversity from the trio of these infections. Effect of host genetics on treatment outcome has been documented. Host genetics of sub-Saharan African population and its implication to infectious diseases are an important aspect that this review seeks to address.