Table 4: Tests of trait-space use on Solidago altissima and S. gigantea for four Solidago herbivores. -values in bold are significant at α = 0.05.

HerbivoreHost# Attacked plants1Distance from available centroid2Marginal trait-space test P Restricted trait-space test P Distance between attacked trait-spaces3Distant
test P

PhilaenusS. altissima251.00−0.50<0.0014 Small 0.71
S. gigantea221.11−0.520.001
ExemaS. altissima590.300.050.023 Small 0.14
S. gigantea330.650.040.023
UroleuconS. altissima91.39−0.100.007 Large 0.86
S. gigantea82.32−0.62<0.001
RhopalomyiaS. altissima270.090.350.210.18 Large 0.80
S. gigantea80.66−0.050.311.0

1Of 92 available S. altissima and 175 available S. gigantea ramets.
2Attacked centroid minus available centroid (PC1 and PC2 components). A positive entry means that ramets with a large PC score are more likely to be attacked.
3“Small” if the two attacked trait spaces are adjacent (Figure 2(b)), and “large” if the two attacked trait spaces are distant (Figure 2(c)).
4This test is informative only when the marginal trait-space test is not significant.