Table 2: Results of linear mixed-effects model testing the effects of ant tending frequency and sex on growth parameters of Miami blue butterfly larvae. Non-significant interaction terms were omitted from some models to better estimate the effects of tending frequency and sex of larvae on growth responses. Uncorrected -values are presented; test results lower than the table-wide false discovery rate for the corresponding predictor variable are indicated in bold italic font.

Growth parameter tested
Source of variationdfF-value

Age at maximum larval mass
 Tending frequency1, 320.830.37
 Sex1, 320.130.72
 Tending frequency * Sex1, 324.550.041
Maximum larval mass
 Tending frequency1, 3215.300.0004
 Sex1, 3212.610.0012
 Tending frequency * Sex1, 324.540.041
Percent mass lost during prepupal stage
 Tending frequency1, 321.710.20
 Sex of larvae1, 320.0840.77
 Tending frequency * Sex1, 326.550.015
Pupal mass
 Tending frequency1, 325.550.025
 Sex1, 327.090.012
 Tending frequency * Sex1, 327.520.0099
Age at pupation
 Tending frequency1, 321.100.30
 Sex1, 320.0220.88
 Tending frequency * Sex1, 324.520.048
Duration of pupal stage
 Sex1, 334.640.039
 Pupal mass1, 330.320.57
Total duration of immature stages
 Tending frequency1, 331.450.24
 Sex1, 330.530.47