Table 1: Carbon species and chemical shifts via 13C NMR.

Chemical shift, ppmMolecular fragments: carbon species

0–47Unsubstituted saturated alkyl carbons (C)

47–60Alkyl C substituted by oxygen and nitrogen atoms

60–110Alkyl C singly bonded to one oxygen atom (such as ring C in carbohydrates) and alkyl C bonded to two oxygen atoms (such as anomeric C of carbohydrates)

110–144Proton- and alkyl-substituted aromatic C

144–164Oxygen-substituted aromatic C

164–183Carboxyl, ester, and amide C

183–190Quinone C