Table 5: Foraging modes, number of foragers, foraging rates, and pollen transfer efficiency of different flower visitors of alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

ParameterForaging modeVisitor species
Apis dorsataApis floreaChalicodoma cephalotesChalicodoma rubripesMegachile nana

No. of foragers /m2
(a)
N1.87±0.095.81±0.8000 (b)
P0.50±0.0010000
NP0.25±0.0100.23±0.043.6±0.42.70±0.2(c)
N+P+NP1.89±0.095.81±0.80.23±0.043.6±0.42.70±0.2(c)

Foraging rate (per minute)
(a)
N7.6±0.424.9±0.31000
P7.2±0.470000
NP5.8±0.34011.5±0.5215.3±0.4318.4±0.3(c)

PTE (per minute)0.650.011.515.318.4

a: mean ± SD of 125 observations; N: only nectar gathering; P: only pollen gathering; NP: nectar as well as pollen gathering; PTE: Pollen transfer efficiency; b: t (p < 0.05) = significant (values tested on the basis of paired t-test); c: F (P< 0.05) = significant (values tested for the visitors of a row); zero values indicate that pollinator behavior was absent.