Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Electrochemistry
Volume 2011, Article ID 381960, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/381960
Research Article

Influence of the C/Sn Ratio on the Synthesis and Lithium Electrochemical Insertion of Tin-Supported Graphite Materials Used as Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

1Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Minéral, Nancy-University, CNRS, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France
2Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP), UPR 3349, Nancy-University, CNRS, 1 rue Grandville, 54001 Nancy Cedex, France
3Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31055 Toulouse Cedex, France

Received 21 January 2011; Accepted 25 February 2011

Academic Editor: S. Gopukumar

Copyright © 2011 Cédric Mercier et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J.-M. Tarascon and M. Armand, “Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6861, pp. 359–367, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Winter and J. O. Besenhard, “Electrochemical lithiation of tin and tin-based intermetallics and composites,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 45, no. 1-2, pp. 31–50, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. G. Derrien, J. Hassoun, S. Panero, and B. Scrosati, “Nanostructured Sn-C composite as an advanced anode material in high-performance lithium-ion batteries,” Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 17, pp. 2336–2340, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. Y. Idota, T. Kubota, A. Matsufuji, Y. Maekawa, and T. Miyasaka, “Tin-based amorphous oxide: a high-capacity lithium-ion-storage material,” Science, vol. 276, no. 5317, pp. 1395–1397, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. E. Kim, D. Son, T.-G. Kim et al., “Mesoporous/crystalline composite material containing tin phosphate for use as the anode in lithium-ion batteries,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 43, no. 44, pp. 5987–5990, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. M. Winter, J. O. Besenhard, M. F. Spahr, and P. Novak, “Insertion electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries,” Advanced Materials, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 725–763, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  7. R. A. Huggins, “Lithium alloy negative electrodes,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 81-82, no. 1-2, pp. 13–19, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. Yang, M. Wachtler, M. Winter, and J. O. Besenhard, “Sub-microcrystalline Sn and Sn-SnSb powders as lithium storage materials for lithium-ion batteries,” Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, vol. 2, no. 2–4, pp. 161–163, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  9. L. Y. Beaulieu, S. D. Beattie, T. D. Hatchard, and J. R. Dahn, “The electrochemical reaction of lithium with tin studied by in situ AFM,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 150, no. 4, pp. A419–A424, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Trifonova, M. Winter, and J. O. Besenhard, “Structural and electrochemical characterization of tin-containing graphite compounds used as anodes for Li-ion batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 174, no. 2, pp. 800–804, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S.-H. Ng, S.-Y. Chew, D. I. Dos Santos et al., “Hexagonal-shaped tin glycolate particles: a preliminary study of their suitability as Li-ion insertion electrodes,” Chemistry—An Asian Journal, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 854–861, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. P. Meduri, C. Pendyala, V. Kumar, G. U. Sumanasekera, and M. K. Sunkara, “Hybrid tin oxide nanowires as stable and high capacity anodes for Li-ion batteries,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 612–616, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. K. Ui, S. Kikuchi, Y. Kadoma, N. Kumagai, and S. Ito, “Electrochemical characteristics of Sn film prepared by pulse electrodeposition method as negative electrode for lithium secondary batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 224–229, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. L. Balan, R. Schneider, D. Billaud, and J. Ghanbaja, “Novel low-temperature synthesis of tin(0) nanoparticles,” Materials Letters, vol. 59, no. 8-9, pp. 1080–1084, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Balan, R. Schneider, D. Billaud, and J. Ghanbaja, “A new organometallic synthesis of size-controlled tin(0) nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1153–1158, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Balan, J. Ghanbaja, P. Willmann, and D. Billaud, “Novel tin-graphite composites as negative electrodes of Li-ion batteries,” Carbon, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 2311–2316, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. L. Balan, R. Schneider, J. Ghanbaja, P. Willmann, and D. Billaud, “Electrochemical lithiation of new graphite-nanosized tin particle materials obtained by SnCl2 reduction in organic medium,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 51, no. 17, pp. 3385–3390, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. D. Billaud, L. Balan, R. Schneider, and P. Willmann, “The influence of the synthesis conditions of graphite/tin nanoparticle materials on their electrode electrochemical performance in Li-ion battery anodes,” Carbon, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 2508–2515, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. L. Balan, R. Schneider, P. Willmann, and D. Billaud, “Tin-graphite materials prepared by reduction of SnCl4 in organic medium: synthesis, characterization and electrochemical lithiation,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 587–593, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. I. A. Courtney and J. R. Dahn, “Electrochemical and in situ X-ray diffraction studies of the reaction of lithium with tin oxide composites,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 144, no. 6, pp. 2045–2052, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. Sivashanmugara, T. P. Kumar, N. G. Renganathan, S. Gopukumar, M. Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, and J. Garche, “Electrochemical behavior of Sn/SnO2 mixtures for use as anode in lithium rechargeable batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 197–203, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. C. Nabais, R. Schneider, C. Bellouard, J. Lambert, P. Willmann, and D. Billaud, “A new method for the size- and shape-controlled synthesis of lead nanostructures,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 268–275, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. C. Mercier, R. Schneider, D. Billaud, J. C. Jumas, and J. Olivier-Fourcade, manuscript in preparation.
  24. K. Wan, S. F. Y. Li, Z. Gao, and K. S. Siow, “Tin-based oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries with low irreversible capacity,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 9–12, 1998. View at Google Scholar