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International Journal of Electrochemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 268747, 10 pages
Research Article

Faster-Than-Real-Time Simulation of Lithium Ion Batteries with Full Spatial and Temporal Resolution

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

Received 26 June 2013; Accepted 4 November 2013

Academic Editor: Sheng S. Zhang

Copyright © 2013 Sandip Mazumder and Jiheng Lu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A one-dimensional coupled electrochemical-thermal model of a lithium ion battery with full temporal and normal-to-electrode spatial resolution is presented. Only a single pair of electrodes is considered in the model. It is shown that simulation of a lithium ion battery with the inclusion of detailed transport phenomena and electrochemistry is possible with faster-than-real-time compute times. The governing conservation equations of mass, charge, and energy are discretized using the finite volume method and solved using an iterative procedure. The model is first successfully validated against experimental data for both charge and discharge processes in a battery. Finally, it is demonstrated for an arbitrary rapidly changing transient load typical of a hybrid electric vehicle drive cycle. The model is able to predict the cell voltage of a 15-minute drive cycle in less than 12 seconds of compute time on a laptop with a 2.33 GHz Intel Pentium 4 processor.