Table of Contents
Corrigendum

A corrigendum for this article has been published. To view the corrigendum, please click here.

International Journal of Family Medicine
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 812182, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/812182
Research Article

Development of a Tool to Identify Poverty in a Family Practice Setting: A Pilot Study

Department of Family Practice, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 3rd floor David Strangway Building, 5950 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3

Received 14 January 2011; Revised 9 March 2011; Accepted 11 March 2011

Academic Editor: Stewart Mercer

Copyright © 2011 Vanessa Brcic et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Conference Board of Canada, “Roundtable on the Socioeconomic Determinants of Health,” 2006, http://www.conferenceboard.ca/networks/rsedh/default.aspx.
  2. D. Raphael, Poverty, Income Inequality and Health in Canada, School of Health Policy and Management, York University, 2002.
  3. World Health Organization (WHO), “Declaration of Alma-Ata,” in International Conference on Primary Health Care, USSR, Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, September 1978.
  4. WHO, Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts, 1998.
  5. G. Bloch, V. Etches, C. Garder et al., “Why poverty makes us sick,” Ontario Medical Review, pp. 32–37, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  6. G. Bloch, V. Etches, C. Gardner et al., “Identifying poverty in your practice and community,” Identifying Poverty in your Practice and Community, pp. 39–43, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  7. G. Bloch, V. Etches, C. Gardner et al., “Strategies for physicians to mitigate the health effects of poverty,” Ontario Medical Review, pp. 45–49, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. G. Marmot, G. Rose, M. Shipley, and P. J. S. Hamilton, “Employment grade and coronary heart disease in British civil servants,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 244–249, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. A. Mustard, S. Derksen, J. M. Berthelot, M. Wolfson, and L. L. Roos, “Age-specific education and income gradients in morbidity and mortality in a Canadian province,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 383–397, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Wilkins, J.-M. Berthelot, and E. Ng, “Trends in mortality by neighbourhood income in urban Canada from 1971 to 1996,” Health Reports, vol. 13, supplement, pp. 6–7, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  11. M. D. Philibert, R. Pampalon, D. Hamel, J. P. Thouez, and C. G. Loiselle, “Material and social deprivation and health and social services utilisation in Québec: a local-scale evaluation system,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1651–1664, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. L. Smeeth and I. Heath, “Why inequalities in health matter to primary care,” British Journal of General Practice, vol. 51, no. 467, pp. 436–437, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  13. D. Blumenthal, E. Mort, and J. Edwards, “The efficacy of primary care for vulnerable population groups,” Health Services Research, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 253–273, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. A. Lawlor, “The health consequences of fuel poverty: what should the role of primary care be?” British Journal of General Practice, vol. 51, no. 467, pp. 435–436, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  15. S. J. Willems, W. Swinnen, and J. M. De Maeseneer, “The GP's perception of poverty: a qualitative study,” Family Practice, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 177–183, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Woolhouse, J. B. Brown, and B. Lent, “Women marginalized by poverty and violence. How patient-physician relationships can help,” Canadian Family Physician, vol. 50, pp. 1388–1394, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. M. Martin and T. Kaufman, “Addressing health inequities: a case for implementing primary health care,” Canadian Family Physician, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1515–1517, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. H. Menec, N. P. Roos, C. Black, and B. Bogdanovic, “Characteristics of patients with a regular source of care,” Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 299–303, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. L. Szanton, J. M. Gill, and J. K. Allen, “Allostatic load: a mechanism of socioeconomic health disparities?” Biological Research for Nursing, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 7–15, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Zuvekas, K. McNamara, and C. Bernstein, “Measuring the primary care experiences of low-income and minority patients,” Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 63–78, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Monnickendam, S. M. Monnickendam, C. Katz, and J. Katan, “Health care for the poor-An exploration of primary-care physicians' perceptions of poor patients and of their helping behaviors,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 1463–1474, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. M. McGregor, “New understanding of poverty and health,” Canadian Family Physician Medecin De Famille Canadien, vol. 45, pp. 2837–2845, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  23. L. B. Mauksch, W. J. Katon, J. Russo, S. M. Tucker, E. Walker, and J. Cameron, “The content of a low-income, uninsured primary care population: including the patient agenda,” Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 278–289, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. H. Wiggers and R. Sanson-Fisher, “Practitioner provision of preventive care in general practice consultations: association with patient educational and occupational status,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 137–146, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. J. S. Weissman, R. Stern, S. L. Fielding, and A. M. Epstein, “Delayed access to health care: risk factors, reasons, and consequences,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 114, no. 4, pp. 325–331, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Hafner-Eaton, “Physician utilization disparities between the uninsured and insured: comparisons of the chronically ill, acutely ill, and well nonelderly populations,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 269, no. 6, pp. 787–792, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. C. Hull, B. A. Husaini, S. Tropez-Sims, M. Reece, J. Emerson, and R. Levine, “EPSDT preventive services in a low-income pediatric population: impact of a nursing protocol,” Clinical Pediatrics, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 137–142, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. P. Tarshis, D. P. Jutte, and L. C. Huffman, “Provider recognition of psychosocial problems in low-income Latino children,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 342–357, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Chaudhary and N. Kreiger, “Nutrition and physical activity interventions for low-income populations,” Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 201–206, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. R. Counsell, C. M. Callahan, D. O. Clark et al., “Geriatric care management for low-income seniors: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no. 22, pp. 2623–2633, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Swindale and P. Bilinsky, “Development of a universally applicable household food insecurity measurement tool: process, current status, and outstanding issues,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 1449S–1452S, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. M. Kuyper, G. Espinosa-Hall, C. L. Lamp et al., “Development of a tool to assess past food insecurity of immigrant Latino mothers,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 378–382, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Tsai, R. Weintraub, L. Gee, and M. Kushel, “Identifying homelessness at an urban public hospital: a moving target?” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 297–307, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. L. Radimer, “Measurement of household food security in the USA and other industrialised countries,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 859–864, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. E. Kleinman, J. M. Murphy, K. M. Wieneke, M. S. Desmond, A. Schiff, and J. A. Gapinski, “Use of a single-question screening tool to detect hunger in families attending a neighborhood health center,” Ambulatory Pediatrics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 278–284, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. S. Abbott, “Prescribing welfare benefits advice in primary care:is it a health intervention, and if so, what sort?” Journal of Public Health Medicine, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 307–312, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. Harding, L. Sherr, A. Sherr, R. Moorhead, and S. Singh, “Welfare rights advice in primary care: prevalence processes and specialist provision,” Family Practice, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 48–53, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Statistics Canada, “Low Income Cut-offs for 2007 and Low Income Measures for 2006,” Income Research Paper Series, 2007, http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75f0002m/75f0002m2008004-eng.pdf.
  39. Statistics Canada, “Canadian Community Health Survey,” 2007, http://www.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/instrument/5015_Q1_V1-eng.pdf.
  40. N. Krieger, D. R. Williams, and N. E. Moss, “Measuring social class in us public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 18, pp. 341–378, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. N. Kotwani and M. Danis, “Tackling the health-poverty nexus: primary care medicine and intersectoral health action,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1632–1633, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. L. E. Ricciuto and V. S. Tarasuk, “An examination of income-related disparities in the nutritional quality of food selections among Canadian households from 1986–2001,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 186–198, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. J. Fallowfield, V. A. Jenkins, and H. A. Beveridge, “Truth may hurt but deceit hurts more: communication in palliative care,” Palliative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 297–303, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. K. Heyland, P. Dodek, G. Rocker et al., “What matters most in end-of-life care: perceptions of seriously ill patients and their family members,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 174, no. 5, pp. 627–633, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. A. DeWalt, N. D. Berkman, S. Sheridan, K. N. Lohr, and M. P. Pignone, “Literacy and health outcomes: a systematic review of the literature,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1228–1239, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus