Table of Contents
International Journal of Family Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 526463, 7 pages
Research Article

Psychological Distress in Women with Chronic Bronchitis in a Fishing Community in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
3Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Calabar, Nigeria
4Department of Mental Health, University of Uyo, Nigeria

Received 1 August 2013; Revised 17 October 2013; Accepted 21 October 2013

Academic Editor: Carolyn Chew-Graham

Copyright © 2013 Victor Aniedi Umoh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Biomass smoke exposure is a known risk factor for chronic bronchitis. Psychiatric comorbidities may have significant impact on the quality of life of patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods. Women who engage in fish preservation by drying over burning firewood in a fishing community were recruited for this survey. The British medical research questionnaire was used to determine chronic bronchitis, and psychological distress was determined using the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Results. A total of 342 women were recruited for this study and 63 of them had chronic bronchitis. 96 women had features suggestive of psychological distress: 57 (16.6%) women with anxiety, 51 (14.9%) women with depression and 12 women (3.5%) had combined features. Psychological distress was more common among women with chronic bronchitis. Anxiety was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis and the level of biomass exposure while depression was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis, level of exposure, and a history of sleeping in the fish smoking room. Conclusion. Anxiety and depression show significant association with chronic bronchitis among women with biomass smoke exposure with the level of exposure having an aggravating effect on the relationship.