Table of Contents
International Journal of Family Medicine
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 174532, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/174532
Clinical Study

Comparing the Effects of Dietary Flaxseed and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Cyclical Mastalgia in Iranian Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

1Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, Department of Midwifery, Fatemeh (P.B.U.H) School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 71345-1359, Shiraz 71936 13119, Iran
2Student Research Committee, Fatemeh (P.B.U.H) School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 71345-1359, Shiraz 71936 13119, Iran
3Infertility Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 71345-1359, Shiraz 71936 13119, Iran
4School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 71345-1359, Shiraz 71936 13119, Iran
5Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 71345-1359, Shiraz 71936 13119, Iran
6Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Infertility Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 71345-1359, Shiraz 71936 13119, Iran

Received 7 May 2014; Revised 17 July 2014; Accepted 18 July 2014; Published 13 August 2014

Academic Editor: Hagen Sandholzer

Copyright © 2014 Farideh Vaziri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. L. Smith, S. Pruthi, and L. A. Fitzpatrick, “Evaluation and management of breast pain,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 353–372, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. C. A. Jawrence, B. J. Grube, and A. E. Guiliano, “Benign breast disease,” in Berek and Novak's Gynecology, J. S. Berek, Ed., pp. 667–670, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 15th edition, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. M. A. Fritz and L. Speroff, Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 8th edition, 2011.
  4. K. Kataria, A. Dhar, A. Srivastava, S. Kumar, and A. Goyal, “A systematic review of current understanding and management of mastalgia,” Indian Journal of Surgery, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. M. Johnson, K. A. Bradley, K. Bush, C. Gardella, D. J. Dobie, and M. B. Laya, “Frequency of mastalgia among women veterans: association with psychiatric conditions and unexplained pain syndromes,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 21, supplement 3, pp. S70–S75, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Parsay, F. Olfati, and S. Nahidi, “Therapeutic effects of vitamin e on cyclic mastalgia,” Breast Journal, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 510–514, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. D. Pearlman and J. L. Griffin, “Benign breast disease,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 747–758, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. E. Dennehy, “The use of herbs and dietary supplements in gynecology an evidence-based review,” Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 402–409, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Goyal and R. E. Mansel, “A randomized multicenter study of gamolenic acid (Efamast) with and without antioxidant vitamins and minerals in the management of mastalgia,” Breast Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 41–47, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Bacciottini, A. Falchetti, B. Pampaloni, E. Bartolini, A. M. Carossino, and M. L. Brandi, “Phytoestrogens: Food or drug?” Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 123–130, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. L. Adolphe, S. J. Whiting, B. H. J. Juurlink, L. U. Thorpe, and J. Alcorn, “Health effects with consumption of the flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 103, no. 7, pp. 929–938, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. E. Lewis, L. A. Nickell, L. U. Thompson, J. P. Szalai, A. Kiss, and J. R. Hilditch, “A randomized controlled trial of the effect of dietary soy and flaxseed muffins on quality of life and hot flashes during menopause,” Menopause, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 631–642, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Pruthi, R. Qin, S. A. Terstreip et al., “A phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of flaxseed for the treatment of hot flashes: north central cancer treatment group N08C7,” Menopause, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 48–53, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. L. Simbalista, A. V. Sauerbronn, J. M. Aldrighi, and J. A. G. Arêas, “Consumption of a flaxseed-rich food is not more effective than a placebo in alleviating the climacteric symptoms of postmenopausal women,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 293–297, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. M. Capuzzi and J. S. Freeman, “C-reactive protein and cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: controversy and challenge,” Clinical Diabetes, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. H. Arjmandi, D. A. Khan, S. Juma et al., “Whole flaxseed consumption lowers serum LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) concentrations in postmenopausal women,” Nutrition Research, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1203–1214, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Hallund, I. Tetens, S. Bügel, T. Tholstrup, and J. M. Bruun, “The effect of a lignan complex isolated from flaxseed on inflammation markers in healthy postmenopausal women,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 497–502, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Wang, T. Mäkelä, T. Hase, H. Adlercreutz, and M. S. Kurzer, “Lignans and flavonoids inhibit aromatase enzyme in human preadipocytes,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 50, no. 3-4, pp. 205–212, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. R. Sturgeon, J. L. Heersink, S. L. Volpe et al., “Effect of dietary flaxseed on serum levels of estrogens and androgens in postmenopausal women,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 612–618, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Wang, J. Chen, and L. U. Thompson, “The inhibitory effect of flaxseed on the growth and metastasis of estrogen receptor negative human breast cancer xenografts is attributed to both its lignan and oil components,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 793–798, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. Rosolowich, E. Saettler, B. Szuck et al., “Mastalgia,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 49–74, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Blommers, E. S. M. de Lange-de Klerk, D. J. Kuik, P. D. Bezemer, and S. Meijer, “Evening primrose oil and fish oil for severe chronic mastalgia: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial,” The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 187, no. 5, pp. 1389–1394, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Sohrabi, M. Kashanian, S. S. Ghafoori, and S. K. Malakouti, “Evaluation of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: ‘a pilot trial’,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 141–146, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. M. Hutchins, M. C. Martini, B. A. Olson, W. Thomas, and J. L. Slavin, “Flaxseed influences urinary lignan excretion in a dose-dependent manner in postmenopausal women,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1113–1118, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. M. Landete, “Plant and mammalian lignans: a review of source, intake, metabolism, intestinal bacteria and health,” Food Research International, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 410–424, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. X. Li, J. P. Yuan, S. P. Xu, J. H. Wang, and X. Liu, “Separation and determination of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside oligomers and their hydrolysates in the flaxseed extract by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1185, no. 2, pp. 223–232, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. U.S. Department of Agriculture—Agricultural Research Service, USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 26, Nutrient Data Laboratory, 2013, https://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=8964.
  28. D. M. Ingram, C. Hickling, L. West, L. J. Mahe, and P. M. Dunbar, “A double-blind randomized controlled trial of isoflavones in the treatment of cyclical mastalgia,” Breast, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 170–174, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. L. Cheung, “Management of cyclical mastalgia in oriental women: Pioneer experience of using gamolenic acid (Efamast) in Asia,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 492–494, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. C. S. D. Barros, J. Mottola Jr., C. A. Ruiz, M. N. Borges, and J. A. Pinotti, “Reassurance in the treatment of mastalgia,” Breast Journal, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 162–165, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus