Exploring Local People’s Perception of Ecosystem Services in Djoumouna Periurban Forest, Brazzaville, CongoRead the full article
International Journal of Forestry Research publishes research about the management and conservation of trees or forests, including tree biodiversity, sustainability, habitat protection and the social and economic aspects of forestry.
International Journal of Forestry Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Wood Loss Assessment in Forest of Sal (Shorea robusta) by Heart Rot of Central Terai of Nepal
A significant volume of wood was lost due to wood defects; however, few studies were done to quantify wood loss by wood defects. This study was focused on quantifying wood loss by heart rot, especially hollowness in Shorea robusta. The study was conducted in Tileswornath community forest of Rautahat district. The data were collected from the felling site of the regeneration felling block of Tileswornath community forest. 44 trees were selected randomly, and tree diameter, total height, and volume were measured. The destructive method was followed as heart rot cannot be visible from the surface. Felled trees were sanctioned into 285 logs and separated based on the hollowness. Hollow diameters at both thin end and mid and thick end, as well as length, were measured on the hollow log, and Smalian’s formula was used to calculate the volume of hollowed portion, and volume calculation formula for the cylinder was used to calculate total volume. For the solid logs, mid diameter and length of the log were measured and volume calculation formula for the cylinder was used to calculate total volume. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relation of total height and diameter with the probability of hollowness presence. The study showed that 59% of sampled trees and 34.39% of logs were found to be hollowed due to heart rot. 41.79% volume was occupied by hollow on the hollowed log. Logistic regression discards the relation of height to the hollowness but signified the relation of diameter to the probability of hollowness presence. Before implementation of scientific forest management modality, the timber retained in stump per tree was found as 0.18 cubic feet.
Occurrence of Citropsis articulata in Tropical Forests in Uganda: Implication for Ex Situ Conservation
Citropsis articulata is a medicinal plant that is increasingly threatened by unsustainable methods of harvesting and habitat degradation. Owing to the fact that this plant species is highly utilized for herbal medicine and is currently restricted to a few forest reserves in Uganda, this has significant implications for ex situ conservation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess how physiographical factors influence the occurrence and distribution of C. articulata in the three forest reserves in Uganda, namely, Budongo, Mabira, and Kibale National Park. The study was carried out in 15 compartmental sites in each of the three forests. In each compartmental site, 4 plots of 60 m × 60 m were systematically established, and within each plot, 4 subplots each of size 20 m × 20 m were randomly setup. A total of 240 subplots were assessed for occurrence of Citropsis articulata in each forest. The results indicated a significant () variation in the density of C. articulata with the highest recorded in Kibale National Park. Citropsis articulata generally occurred at moderate altitudinal landscapes (overall elevation = 1200.0 ± 20.73 m) with soils that are moderately acidic (overall pH = 5.7 ± 0.10), low in salinity (overall salinity = 84.0 ± 3.84 mg/l), and moderate levels of macro- and micronutrients. Citropsis articulata was generally associated with plant communities dominated by canopy tree species of genera such as Chryosphyllum, Celtis, Markhamia, Cynometra, Lasiodiscus, Trilepisium, Funtumia, and Diospyros, thus suggesting that C. articulata is a shade-tolerant species. Establishing the ecological requirements of this plant species among other things informs the potential for ex situ production of this plant. This will not only provide alternative sources of plant harvest but also go a long way in relieving the current harvest pressures exerted on the conserved wild populations of this plant species.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Measures within the Forestry and Other Land Use Subsector in Malawi
Analysing past trends of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions remains indispensable to the understanding of current GHG emissions, thereby enabling prediction of future emissions as well as development of their mitigative pathways. This study quantified GHG emissions within the Forest and Other Land Use (FOLU) subsector in Malawi for the period 2011 to 2020. Results indicate that Malawi’s GHG emissions in the FOLU subsector fluctuated but decreased by 0.84 MtCO2e (13%) from 2011 to 2020, averaging to −1.3% annually. The GHG emissions of different categories within the subsector were highly significant () and contributed the highest (99.72%) of the total variation. Forestland contributed the highest (74%) of the subsector category emissions, followed by biomass burning (19%). The uncertainties for the estimated GHG emissions were low (<15%). This shows that the estimated GHG emissions within the FOLU subsector were significantly minimised. Notable interventions that have abated the emissions include afforestation and natural/assisted regeneration; protection and conservation of protected areas through the REDD+ mechanism; establishment of seed banks for raising drought-tolerant tree species; and breeding of fast-growing and drought-tolerant tree species; as well as screening of disease and pest-resistant species and promotion of biological control.
A Review on Bamboo Resource in the African Region: A Call for Special Focus and Action
The African region has untapped bamboo resource potential with immense socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological significances. Despite the long history of bamboo in the region, its contribution is at the infant stage. Therefore, the present study aimed at reviewing the existing literature supported by research experience on bamboo resource in the region. The review process mainly focused on four main specific objectives. These include (1) review extensively African countries that owned the resource and identify the species in each country, (2) identify and document species, generic, and taxonomic tribes of each bamboo species, (3) assess and report bamboo area coverage from available nations, and (4) highlight the existing experiences of special opportunities, challenges, and successful achievements on bamboo resource in representative African countries. The review process found out that a total of 4.56 million ha total bamboo area and 115 bamboo species are reported from 48 African countries. Hence, the African region shares 12.3% of the global bamboo resource and contributed 7.3% of the total bamboo species. Of this, 89.6% of the region is endowed with indigenous bamboo species. Among indigenous species, O. abyssinica is the most widely distributed in 38 African countries. Madagascar ranked first with 37 indigenous species, while Ethiopia led by 25 introduced bamboo species. Nowadays, Ethiopia has 1.44 million ha total indigenous bamboo area coverage, which accounted for 31.6% of the African region and 3.89% of the world total. Therefore, more detail and comprehensive research on species taxonomy, resource base inventory, silvicultural applications, and socioeconomic study is recommended.
Enhancing Ecologically Sustainable Management of Deadwood in Kenya’s Natural Forests
The need for ecologically sustainable management of natural forests has assumed greater prominence in conservation and climate change discourses. However, the identification of deadwood, a critical component of natural forests, continues to receive little attention around the world. Through a review of the existing literature, this study sought to promote consciousness and awareness on the value of deadwood using the case of Kenya’s natural forests in the wider context of biodiversity conservation and climate change. Results substantiate that deadwood in natural forests performs a vital function in forest biological and ecological functions. However, forest degradation through the removal of deadwood, even though widely neglected, results in considerable biodiversity loss and might alter natural forest ecosystems, thereby exacerbating the impacts of climate change. In Kenya, despite the recent sophistication of forest management tools, including the development of the Draft Forest Policy, 2020, and enactment of the Forest Conservation and Management Act, 2016, to increasingly recognize the more progressive forest management paradigms such as participatory forest management in natural forest management, the current deadwood management practice is faulty and could yield outcomes contrary to the policy intentions and the wider provisions of ecologically sustainable forest management. It is because major policy documents lack robust and explicit guidelines on achieving ecologically sustainable management of deadwood despite its centrality in providing ecosystem services and as a highly dependable source of energy resources for over 70% of the Kenyan population. Moreover, deadwood management appears to be affected by many complex biological, technical, policy, and socioeconomic factors that appear to be acting together against sustainable deadwood management. Still, perhaps most importantly, the absence of research on the topic is the most outstanding challenge. Therefore, in the future, improving the sustainable management of natural forests will require the restoration of deadwood and increasing consciousness on the value of deadwood through more research studies.
Developing Species-Age Cohorts from Forest Inventory and Analysis Data to Parameterize a Forest Landscape Model
Simulating long-term, landscape level changes in forest composition requires estimates of stand age to initialize succession models. Detailed stand ages are rarely available, and even general information on stand history often is lacking. We used data from USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database to estimate broad age classes for a forested landscape to simulate changes in landscape composition and structure relative to climate change at Fort Drum, a 43,000 ha U.S. Army installation in northwestern New York. Using simple linear regression, we developed relationships between tree diameter and age for FIA site trees from the host and adjacent ecoregions and applied those relationships to forest stands at Fort Drum. We observed that approximately half of the variation in age was explained by diameter breast height (DBH) across all species studied (r2 = 0.42 for sugar maple Acer saccharum to 0.63 for white ash Fraxinus americana). We then used age-diameter relationships from published research on northern hardwood species to calibrate results from the FIA-based analysis. With predicted stand age, we used tree species life histories and environmental conditions represented by ecological site types to parameterize a stochastic forest landscape model (LANDIS-II) to spatially and temporally model successional changes in forest communities at Fort Drum. Forest stands modeled over 100 years without significant disturbance appeared to reflect expected patterns of increasing dominance by shade-tolerant mesophytic tree species such as sugar maple, red maple (Acer rubrum), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) where soil moisture was sufficient. On drier sandy soils, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), red pine (P. resinosa), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), and white oak (Q. alba) continued to be important components throughout the modeling period with no net loss at the landscape scale. Our results suggest that despite abundant precipitation and relatively low evapotranspiration rates for the region, low soil water holding capacity and fertility may be limiting factors for the spread of mesophytic species on excessively drained soils in the region. Increasing atmospheric temperatures projected for the region could alter moisture regimes for many coarse-textured soils providing a possible mechanism for expansion of xerophytic tree species.