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International Journal of Forestry Research publishes research about the management and conservation of trees or forests, including tree biodiversity, sustainability, habitat protection and the social and economic aspects of forestry.
International Journal of Forestry Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Local Communities’ and Parishioners’ Perceptions on Monasteries’ Forest Patch Plant Biodiversity Conservation in Northern Wollo Ethiopia
Both anthropogenic and climate change threaten Ethiopia’s forest regions. Sacred and religious sites maintain most indigenous and native plant species. Northern Ethiopia farmed and settled for thousands of years, causing environmental damage and deforestation. This study examines biodiversity conservation perceptions and biodiversity preferences by local communities and churchgoers. Among the five monasteries in the area, two were selected based on the stated chriteria. The selection criteria for monasteries were a historical antiquity of more than 50 years and a thick forest cover of more than 10 hectares. Multistage sampling was utilized to choose sample residences. Respondents were chosen using simple random sampling and proportion to population size. Among the total population, 310 survey participants were selected. It was found that the commitment to biodiversity conservation of local people and parishioners is directly explained by age, education, the number of years in a status region, and income. It is highlighted that a higher level of education, age above 51 years, and middle-income socioeconomic status most significantly affect respondents’ biodiversity engagement.
Farmer’s Perceptions of Agroforestry Practices, Contributions to Rural Household Farm Income, and Their Determinants in Sodo Zuria District, Southern Ethiopia
Agroforestry has been widely used in developing countries as a solution to mitigate the effects of climate variability. However, its significance to the well-being of farmers in rural communities has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of agroforestry practices (AFPs) to the farm income of rural families, the perceptions of farmers, and factors that affect AFPs’ contribution to household income in the Sodo Zuria district. The optimal sample size of 173 households from the three study sites was selected through a stratified random sampling procedure. Data were collected using structured interviews, focus group discussion, observation, and key informant interviews. According to the findings, most farmers in the research area had a good perception of the benefits of agroforestry methods. The yearly mean gross income from various agroforestry approaches was 15,990.90 ETB·ha−1·yr−1 for nonadopters and 32,471.24 ETB·ha−1·yr−1 for adopters, respectively. Tree and fruit tree integration with crops, animals, or pastures has the potential to significantly increase food production and farmer economic situations. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the size of the farm, the number of livestock, the experience of agroforestry, and the extension service affect the adoption of agroforestry practices to house farm income positively, while the size of the family negatively affects it. Agroforestry plays a critical role in reducing food poverty and enhancing farmer livelihood resilience (reducing farmers’ vulnerability to climate variability). However, determining the extent to which this is true is challenging because both farmer groups often have low levels of assets such as land and income, which limits tree planting to reaping maximum benefits from agroforestry. As a result, the government and other responsible entities should pay special attention to assisting smallholder farmers in using agroforestry practices for the sustainability of their livelihoods that have been hampered by agricultural land scarcity.
Intraspecific Morphological Variations among the Populations of Milicia excelsa, Pouteria adolfi-friedericii, and Prunus africana in Different Natural Forests of Southwest Ethiopia
Plants have the ability to change their morphological and physiological traits in response to environmental variations. The objective of this study was to determine the intraspecific morphological variations among the populations of M. excelsa, P. adolfi-friedericii, and P. africana in southwest Ethiopia. Representative forests were systematically selected, and a total of ten transects of 160 m length were randomly laid at 100 m intervals, and 30 quadrats (20 m by 20 m) were laid along each transect line at 50 m intervals. Stem height, DBH, and bole length of trees for each species were measured in each quadrat. The intraspecific morphological variations among populations of each species were computed using hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) with R.4.1.3. A total of 55 trees for M. excelsa in four forests, 232 trees for P. adolfi-friedericii in eight forests, and 184 trees for P. africana in five forests were measured. Accordingly, three, five, and three population clusters were identified for M. excelsa, P. adolfi-friedericii, and P. africana, respectively. The analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated the presence of considerable dissimilarity among population clusters for M. excelsa and P. africana but was not significant at (R = 0.9, ). However, ANOSIM indicated the presence of considerable dissimilarity among population clusters of P. adolfi-freidericii, which was significant at (R = 0.9, ). Overall, there was a visible morphological variability among the populations of M. excelsa, P. adolfi-friedericii, and P. africana each at the different sites. Therefore, it is important to look for conservation strategies, such as domestication, to maintain and improve the variability and genetic quality among the populations in a wider scale of the ecological and social environment.
Floristic Composition, Diversity, and Vegetation Structure of Woody Species in Kahitassa Forest, Northwestern Ethiopia
Kahitassa forest is one of the State Forests of Ethiopia with great floral diversity. However, the forest is under threat due to selective cutting of important indigenous tree species and encroachment of the forest area for agricultural purpose. Therefore, the study was intended to explore the floristic composition, structure, and regeneration status of Kahitassa forest. Vegetation data were collected from June to November 2020 using systematic sampling technique from 6 parallel transect lines laid out 500 m apart each other. A total of 101 plots (20 × 20 m) were laid with 100 m apart along transect lines. Vegetation description parameters including Shannon–Weiner Index, evenness, density, DBH, basal area, frequency, and importance value indices (IVI) were computed to characterize both species diversity and vegetation structure. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify plant communities using R (Version 3.1.2) software. A total of 46 woody plant species belonging to 45 genera and 36 families were identified in the forest. Fabaceae and Rosaceae were the dominant families both constituting 34.78% of the total species. The Shannon diversity index (H’) and evenness (E) values of the study area were 2.92 and 0.72, respectively, showing the healthy status of the forest. Five plant community types, namely, Croton macrostachyus–Embelia schemperi, Maytenus undata–Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata, Pavetta abyssinica–Bersama abyssinica, Peucadanum mattiroli, Albizia schimperiana, and Rubus apetalus–Phytolacca dodecandra were identified. The most dominant species as indicated by their important value index (lVI) were Pavetta abyssinica (34.08), Vachellia abyssinica (IVI = 25.13), and Albizia schimperiana (IVI = 21.45). Analyses of DBH revealed that the forest exhibits an inverted J-shape which is typical for selective cutting of multipurpose trees from the forest. Conservation approaches such as enrichment of selected species as well as in situ and ex situ conservation are needed for some plant species under threat.
AMMI Automatic Mangrove Map and Index: Novelty for Efficiently Monitoring Mangrove Changes with the Case Study in Musi Delta, South Sumatra, Indonesia
Mapping mangroves using satellite imagery has been done for decades. It helps reduce obstacles in inaccessible places caused by the mangroves’ intricate root system, thick mud, and loss of position signals. There is an urgent need to produce a mangrove map that automatically and accurately covers the mangroves with the density index of the canopy as visually represented in satellite imagery. The research was conducted through an analytical desk study of the mangrove features from space. The study aims to develop a simple formula for automatically tracing, capturing, and mapping mangroves and determining the canopy density index from open access of satellite data to eliminate manual digitization work, make it easy to use, and save cost and time. The goal is to monitor, assess, and manage the condition of mangroves for anyone interested in mangroves, including the central government, local authorities, and local communities. As a result, the authors proposed an algorithm: (ρNIR − ρRed)/(ρRed + ρSWIR1) ∗ (ρNIR − ρSWIR1)/(ρSWIR1 − 0.65 ∗ ρRed). Experimental results in many mangrove forests using Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM, Landsat 8 OLI, and Sentinel 2 imageries show satisfactory performance. The maps capture the spatial extent of the mangroves automatically and match the satellite imagery visually. The index correlates significantly with the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), with R2 reaching 0.99. The research will apply the formula of the Musi Delta mangrove complex in South Sumatra, Indonesia. The advantage of the algorithm is that it works well, is easy to use, produces mangrove maps faster, informs the index, and efficiently monitors the change in mangrove conditions from time to time.
Influence of Soil Nutrients, Tree Age, and Sandalwood Provenances on Sandalwood Oil Yield and Quality
East African Sandalwood (Osyris laceolata) is an important tree species used in perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. In Kenya, the tree is illegally poached and smuggled mostly to India as a substitute for Asian sandalwood. Therefore, there is a need to domesticate E. A. sandalwood to ease pressure on natural stands. The aim of this study is to determine ecological factors influencing Osyris oil yield and quality to guide the selection of provenances for on-farm domestication. Soil and woody samples were obtained from 12 provenances and used for soil and oil analysis, respectively. The results showed that only tree age significantly influenced the oil yield (r = 0.31, ). The GC-MS quality results recorded nine common and most abundant compounds across the study sites. These were Z-alpha-trans-bergamotol, alpha bisabolol, lanceol cis, beta bisabolene, alpha santalol, beta santalol, cis-alpha-copaene-8-ol, isopropyl myristate, and isopropyl palmitate. Baringo and Mbooni provenances had the highest number of compounds (8), followed by Homabay (7) while the majority (Chyulu, Kitui, Loita, Maralal, Marsabit, Muranga, and Narosura) had six and Ol Donyo Sabuk and Namanga had the least (5). The species diversity is therefore important for breeding, domestication, and conservation purposes.