Figure 4: Decay-class composition of snags in northern Arizona mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forest in 1997, 2002, and 2007. Snags in decay class 1 retained needles (or leaves), twigs, and intact limbs. Decay-class 2 snags retained twigs and intact limbs but lacked needles (or leaves). Class 3 snags had limbs that were largely intact but lacked twigs. Class 4 snags had limbs that were mostly broken, and class 5 snags lacked large limbs entirely. In both forest types, decay-class distributions shifted from dominance by snags in later decay classes (classes 4 and 5) in 1997 to snags in early decay classes (classes 1 and 2) in 2007.