Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 984395, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/984395
Research Article

Effects of Supply Chain Strategy on Stump Fuel Cost: A Simulation Approach

1Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. BOX 7032, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
2Skogforsk (The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden), Science Park, 75183 Uppsala, Sweden

Received 4 April 2014; Accepted 12 June 2014; Published 30 June 2014

Academic Editor: Harri Mäkinen

Copyright © 2014 Anders Eriksson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Routa, A. Asikainen, R. Björheden, J. Laitila, and D. Röser, “Forest energy procurement: state of the art in Finland and Sweden,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 602–613, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. “Skogliga konsekvensanalyser 2008–SKA-VB 08,” Report 25, Skogsstyrelsen, Skogsstyrelsens förlag, 2008.
  3. E. Anerud and R. Jirjis, “Fuel quality of norway spruce stumps-influence of harvesting technique and storage method,” Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 257–266, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Kalliokoski, P. Nygren, and R. Sievänen, “Coarse root architecture of three boreal tree species growing in mixed stands,” Silva Fennica, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 189–210, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. N. Eriksson and L. Gustavsson, “Biofuels from stumps and small roundwood—Costs and CO2 benefits,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 897–902, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Kärhä, “Industrial supply chains and production machinery of forest chips in Finland,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 3404–3413, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Tran, X. Luo, G. Seisenbaeva, and R. Jirjis, “Stump torrefaction for bioenergy application,” Applied Energy, vol. 112, pp. 539–546, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Eriksson, F. Weiland, H. Hedman et al., “Characterization of Scots pine stump-root biomass as feed-stock for gasification,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 104, pp. 729–736, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Pu, D. Zhang, P. M. Singh, and A. J. Ragauskas, “The new forestry biofuels sector,” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 58–73, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Hjältén, F. Stenbacka, and J. Andersson, “Saproxylic beetle assemblages on low stumps, high stumps and logs: implications for environmental effects of stump harvesting,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 260, no. 7, pp. 1149–1155, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. D. Walmsley and D. L. Godbold, “Stump harvesting for bioenergy—a review of the environmental impacts,” Forestry, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 17–38, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Eriksson, L. Eliasson, and R. Jirjis, “Simulation-based evaluation of supply chains for stump fuel,” International Journal of Forest Engineering, vol. 25, pp. 1–14, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  13. U. J. Wolfsmayr and P. Rauch, “The primary forest fuel supply chain: a literature review,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 60, pp. 203–221, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Bertilsson, “Grovkrossning av stubbar [Stump shredding—a study in productivity],” Institutionen för Skoglig Resurshushållning, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Arbetsrapport, vol. 335, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  15. H. von Hofsten and P. Granlund, Effektivare Transporter om Stubbarna Grovkrossas Påavlägg, Haulage Gain from Crushing Stumps to Coarse Chips at Landing, Resultat Skogforsk, 2010.
  16. H. von Hofsten and M.-Å. Brantholm, “Kostnader och produktivitet i stubbskörd—en fallstudie (Productivity and costs in stump harvest systems—a case study),” Skogforsk Arbetsrapport 795, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  17. J. Laitila, T. Ranta, and A. Asikainen, “Productivity of stump harvesting for fuel,” International Journal of Forest Engineering, vol. 19, pp. 37–47, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  18. M. Laihanen, A. Karhunen, and T. Ranta, “Possibilities and challenges in regional forest biomass utilization,” Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vol. 5, no. 3, Article ID 033121, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Jirjis, “Storage and drying of wood fuel,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 9, no. 1–5, pp. 181–190, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Nylinder and T. Thörnqvist, Lagring av stubbved i fingerad miljö, Institutionen för skogsproduktion, Rapport 121, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Garpenberg, Sweden, 1981.
  21. J. Laurila and R. Lauhanen, “Moisture content of norway spruce stump wood at clear cutting areas and roadside storage sites,” Silva Fennica, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 427–434, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. Rauch, “Stochastic simulation of forest fuel sourcing models under risk,” Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 574–584, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. H. Ballou, Business Logistics Management, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1992.
  24. J. Allen, M. Browne, A. Hunter, J. Boyd, and H. Palmer, “Logistics management and costs of biomass fuel supply,” International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 28, pp. 463–477, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  25. D. Athanassiadis, O. Lindroos, and T. Nordfjell, “Pine and spruce stump harvesting productivity and costs using a Pallari KH 160 stump-lifting tool,” Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 437–445, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. C. Grado and M. Jeya Chandra, “A factorial design analysis of a biomass to ethanol production system,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 115–124, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. R. Ghaffariyan, M. Acuna, and M. Brown, “Analysing the effect of five operational factors on forest residue supply chain costs: a case study in Western Australia,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 59, pp. 486–493, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. Acuna, L. Mirowski, M. R. Ghaffariyan, and M. Brown, “Optimising transport efficiency and costs in Australian wood chipping operations,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 46, pp. 291–300, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. An and S. W. Searcy, “Economic and energy evaluation of a logistics system based on biomass modules,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 46, pp. 190–202, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Banks, J. Carson, B. Nelson, and D. Nicol, Discrete-Event System Simulation, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2010.
  31. L. Eliasson, P. Granlund, H. von Hofsten, and R. Björheden, “Studie av en lastbilsmonterad kross—CBI 5800 (Study of a truck-mounted CBI 5800 grinder),” Arbetsrapport 775-2012, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  32. M. Nordström, B. Hannrup, E. Anerud, T. Johannesson, H. von Hofsten, and L. Eliasson, “Validation of functions for calculating the quantity of forest fuel in stump harvest—a pilot study,” Skogforsk Arbetsrapport 780-2012, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  33. H. von Hofsten, T. Johannesson, and E. Anerud, “Impact of stump splitting on harvest productivity,” Skogforsk Arbetsrapport, vol. 759, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  34. H. von Hofsten, T. Johannesson, and E. Anerud, Comparative Study of Two Stump Lifting Heads, Biorex 50 and the Rotary Stump Cutter—Effects on Stump Procurement System from Lifting to Grinding on Landing, vol. 783 of Arbetsrapport Skogforsk, 2012.
  35. T. Ranta and S. Rinne, “The profitability of transporting uncomminuted raw materials in Finland,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 231–237, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. E. Walker, P. Harremoës, J. Rotmans et al., “Defining uncertainty: a conceptual basis for uncertainty management in model-based decision support,” Integrated Assessment, vol. 4, pp. 5–17, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  37. W. L. Oberkampf, S. M. DeLand, B. M. Rutherford, K. V. Diegert, and K. F. Alvin, “Error and uncertainty in modeling and simulation,” Reliability Engineering and System Safety, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 333–357, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Kärhä and A. Mutikainen, “Testing two novel stump lifting heads in a final felling Norway spruce stand,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Bioenergy Conference—Sustainable Bioenergy Business (Bioenergy '09), M. Savolainen, Ed., vol. 44, pp. 441–448, FINBIO, Jyväskylä, Finland, August 2009.
  39. O. Korpinen, T. Ranta, E. Jäppinen, E. Hämäläinen, and J. Laitila, “Forest fuel supply chain based on terminals and stumps,” in Proceedings of the International Bioenergy Conference and Exhibition, M. Savolainen, Ed., Finnish Forest Research Institute, Jyvaskyla, Finland, September 2007.
  40. A. Leinonen, R. Impola, and S. Rinne, “Harvesting of stumps for fuel,” in Bioenergy in Wood Industry, pp. 209–216, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  41. E. Anerud, “Stumps as fuel—the influence of handling method on fuel quality,” Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, vol. 2012, article 85, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  42. T. Thörnqvist, Logging Residues as a Feedstock for Energy Production—Drying, Storing, Handling and Grading, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala, Sweden, 1984.
  43. S. van Loo and J. Koppejan, The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-Firing, Earthscan, Sterling, Va, USA, 2008.
  44. O. Balci, “Validation, verification, and testing techniques throughout the life cycle of a simulation study,” Annals of Operations Research, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 121–173, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Pettersson and T. Nordfjell, “Fuel quality changes during seasonal storage of compacted logging residues and young trees,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 31, no. 11-12, pp. 782–792, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Söderström, Grot ur Bränslekvalitetsynpunkt—En Studie i Attityders Inverkan, Efokus AB, 2009.
  47. K. Kärhä, “Comparison of two stump-lifting heads in final felling Norway spruce stand,” Silva Fennica, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 625–640, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. V. Lazdans, H. von Hofsten, A. Lazdins, and D. Lazdina, “Productivity and costs of stump harvesting for bioenergy production in Latvian conditions,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Scientific Conference Engineering for Rural Development, pp. 28–29, Jelgava, Latvia, May 2009.
  49. B. Nordén, Sammanställning av Studier Påkrossar Och Flisare 2007–2009, Skogforsk, 2009.
  50. A. Asikainen and P. Pulkkinen, “Comminution of Logging Residues with Evolution 910R chipper, MOHA chipper truck, and Morbark 1200 tub grinder,” International Journal of Forest Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  51. J.-E. Liss, “Studier på nytt fordon för transport av skogsflis,” Dalarna University, Wood Technology, Report, Arbetsdokument, Institutionen för Matematik, Naturvetenskap och Teknik, Falun, Sweden, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  52. R. Mortazavi and J. Johansson, “Road transport vehicles for hauling uncomminuted forest energy products in Sweden,” International Journal of Forestry Research, vol. 2013, Article ID 402349, 7 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. D. Lindberg, Stubbtransporter och Bränslekvalitet hos Stubbved [Stump Transport and Fuel Quality in Stumpwood], Arbetsrapport 220, Institutionen för Skoglig Resurshushållning, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, 2008.
  54. “Saalasti Crush HF—a horizontal feed biomass processor,” 2014, http://www.saalasti.fi/index.php/media-sv/broschyrer-sv?download=13:saalasti-crush-hf-463-en.