International Journal of Forestry Research / 2015 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Selective Herbicides for Cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis Clones

Table 3

Prevalence of ground cover by vegetation groups 30, 60, and 90 days after treatment (DAT) for herbicides applied over newly planted Eucalyptus urograndis rooted cuttings either prior to weed emergence (PRE) or after weed emergence (POST). Treatments were evaluated at the end of the month indicated for each application timing and periodic assessment.

TreatmentGround cover (%)1
HerbicideRate30 DAT60 DAT90 DAT
(g ha−1)GrassesSedges2ForbsVinesGrassesSedgesForbsVinesGrassesSedgesForbsVines2

Applied PRE weed emergence3
MayJuneJuly

Flumioxazin290 ai17 c90 a0 a52 ef9 d–f0 a0 a76 e5 d–e0 a0 ab
Flumioxazin430 ai14 c60 a0 a49 ef5 a–d0 a0 ab59 c–e3 b–d0 a0 a–c
Imazamox140 ae3 ab617 e0 a36 c–e14 f12 cd1 a–c44 bc8 e21 cd2 b–e
Imazamox210 ae2 ab712 de0 a17 bc11 ef19 c–e0 ab34 a–c6 d–e29 de0 a–d
Imazapic140 ae1 ab33 c0 a6 ab2 ab13 c–e0 a27 ab1 ab36 de0 a
Imazapic280 ae0 a33 c0 a3 a2 a11 c0 a20 a1 a38 de0 a
Oxyfluorfen1120 ai34 d61 a–c2 b75 g6 a–e2 ab3 d81 e3 b–d2 ab9 fg
Oxyfluorfen2240 ai5 b60 ab0 a42 d–f12 ef1 a1 b–d80 e4 c–e1 ab4 d–f
Sulfometuron26 ai2 ab410 de0 a16 b8 c–f24 e2 cd47 b–d5 d–e30 de4 e–g
Sulfometuron53 ai0 ab49 d0 a5 ab6 b–e23 de0 a–c25 ab5 d–e37 de3 c–f
Sulfometuron105 ai0 a22 bc0 a3 a3 a–c12 c–e0 a–c29 ab4 c–e32 de3 c–f
Nontreated control37 d717 e8 c61 fg7 b–e9 bc8 e72 de2 a–c8 bc10 g
Complete weed control000001111006

Applied POST weed emergence3
JuneJulyAugust

Flumioxazin290 ai71 f41 a3 bc68 f2 a1 a4 bc66 de1 a2 a3
Flumioxazin430 ai70 f32 a3 b66 f1 a2 a–c1 ab65 de0 a2 a1
Imazamox4140 ae53 de47 bc0 a54 c–f5 ab9 b–e1 a47 c–e1 a12 a–c1
Imazamox4210 ae32 bc77 bc0 a37 b–d9 b9 c–f2 ab42 b–d7 c10 a–c2
Imazapic4140 ae38 b–d47 bc0 a35 bc1 a20 f–h0 a34 bc0 a27 c–e1
Imazapic4280 ae17 a610 c0 a10 a1 a34 h0 a11 a1 a46 e1
Oxyfluorfen1120 ai74 f63 ab8 de57 d–f3 a3 a–c11 e62 de0 a7 ab7
Oxyfluorfen2240 ai66 ef53 ab8 de61 ef3 a2 ab9 c–e67 e1 a2 a4
Sulfometuron26 ai33 bc712 c10 e45 c–e5 ab15 d–f10 de47 c–e4 bc14 a–c5
Sulfometuron53 ai47 cd511 c5 cd54 c–f2 a19 e–g6 c–e51 c–e1 a19 b–d4
Sulfometuron105 ai27 ab413 c3 bc23 ab3 a32 gh5 cd21 ab1 ab40 de3
Nontreated control65 ef510 c11 e72 f2 a8 b–d10 de61 de1 a16 bc6
Complete weed control001010060004

LS-means within a column followed by the same letter for PRE or POST applications are not significantly different at using Fisher’s protected LSD. Means are for the two E. urograndis clones combined, since clone effects were not significant. LS-means for the complete weed control treatment were not included in LSD comparisons, because this treatment was applied repeatedly to provide as close to 100% bare ground as possible and was intended for comparisons of eucalyptus growth response to weed control.
2The effect of treatment was not significant for sedge cover at 30 DAT for PRE or POST applications and for vine cover at 90 DAT for POST applications.
3PRE weed emergence treatments were applied April 29, 2009. POST weed emergence treatments were applied May 30, 2009. Seedlings were planted April 14, 2009.
4A nonionic surfactant was added at 0.25% (v/v) for POST applications of imazapic and imazamox as directed by herbicide label.

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