Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 735418, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/735418
Research Article

Phenotypic Variation in Fruit Morphology among Provenances of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst.

1Department of Forestry, Mzuzu University, Private Bag Box 201, Luwinga, Mzuzu 2, Malawi
2Forestry Research Institute of Malawi, P.O. Box 270, Zomba, Malawi
3Department of Forestry, Malawi College of Forestry and Wildlife, Private Bag Box 6, Dedza, Malawi

Received 13 June 2015; Revised 8 September 2015; Accepted 29 September 2015

Academic Editor: Ignacio García-González

Copyright © 2015 Idah Mkwezalamba et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. T. Masarirambi and K. A. Nxumalo, “Post-harvest physiological indicators on the phenotypic variation of marula fruits (Sclerocarya birrea subspp. caffra) in Swaziland,” International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences, vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 1025–1039, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. A. Mng'omba, G. W. Sileshi, R. Jamnadass, F. K. Akinnifesi, and J. Mhango, “Scion and Stock diameter size effect on growth and fruit production of Sclerocarya birrea (Marula) trees,” Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 153–160, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. E. Shackleton, C. M. Shackleton, T. Cunningham, C. Lombard, C. A. Sullivan, and T. R. Netshiluvhi, “Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: aa summary. Part 1: taxonomy, ecology and role in rural livelihoods,” Southern African Forestry Journal, vol. 194, pp. 27–41, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Wynberg, J. Cribbins, R. R. B. Leakey et al., “A summary of knowledge on marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra) with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and Southern Africa. 2. Commercial use, tenure and policy, domestication, intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing,” Southern African Forestry Journal, vol. 196, pp. 67–77, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  5. C. Khonje, Distribution and population structures of an important indigenous fruit tree in Malawi: Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst [BSc thesis], Chancellor College, Zomba, Malawi, 1999.
  6. J. B. Hall, E. M. O'Brien, and F. L. Sinclair, Sclerocarya Birrea: A Monograph, Publication Number 19, School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, UK, 2002.
  7. Danida Forest Seed Centre, Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst, Seed Leaflet no. 72, Danida Forest Seed Centre, Humlebaek, Denmark, 2003.
  8. R. R. B. Leakey and Z. Tchoundjeu, “Diversification of tree crops: domestication of companion crops for poverty reduction and environmental services,” Experimental Agriculture, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 279–296, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. K. Akinnifesi, F. R. Kwesiga, J. Mhango, A. Mkonda, T. Chilanga, and R. Swai, “Domesticating priority for miombo indigenous fruit trees as a promising livelihood option for small-holder farmers in Southern Africa,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 632, pp. 15–30, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Shah and M. Strong, Food in the 21st Century: From Science to Sustainable Agriculture, FAO, Rome, Italy, 1999.
  11. P. W. Chirwa, R. J. Bwanali, G. Meke, W. Sagona, C. R. Y. Munthali, and L. Mwabumba, “Growth and phenology of a three- to four-year-old Sclerocarya birrea international provenance trial in Malawi,” Southern Hemisphere Forestry Journal, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 49–54, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. K. Akinnifesi, G. Sileshi, O. C. Ajayi, P. W. Chirwa, F. R. Kwesiga, and R. Harawa, “Contributions of agroforestry research and development to livelihood of smallholder farmers in Southern Africa: 2. Fruit, medicinal, fuelwood and fodder tree systems,” Agricultural Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 76–88, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  13. E. J. Simon, J. B. Reece, and J. L. Dickey, Essential Biology with Physiology, Pearson Company, London, UK, 3rd edition, 2010.
  14. E. A. Egbe, I. E. Kuchambi, and Z. Tchoundjeu, “Phenotypic variation in fruits and nuts of Cola acuminata in three populations of the centre region of Cameroon,” International Research Journal of Plant Science, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 236–247, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  15. J. N. Eloff, “Antibacterial activity of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea (A. rich.) Hochst. subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro) (Anacardiaceae) bark and leaves,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 305–308, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. Zobel and J. Talbert, Applied Forest Tree Improvement, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 6th edition, 1984.
  17. Y. Mizrahi and A. Nerd, “New crops as a possible solution to the troubled Israeli export market,” in Progress in New Crops, J. Janick and J. E. Simon, Eds., pp. 56–64, ASHS Press, Alexandria, Va, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  18. R. R. B. Leakey, Z. Tchoundjeu, K. Schreckenberg, S. E. Shackleton, and C. M. Shackleton, “Agroforestry tree products (AFTPs): targeting poverty reduction and enhanced livelihoods,” International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. SAS Institute, SAS/STAT User's Guide, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA, 9th edition, 2010.
  20. B. O. Muok, B. Owuor, I. Dawson, and J. M. Were, “The potentials of indigenous fruit trees: results of a survey in Kitui district Kenya,” Agroforestry Today, vol. 12, pp. 13–16, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  21. P. H. Raven, R. F. Evert, and S. E. Eichhom, Biology of Plants, W. H. Freeman and Company, Worth publishers, New York, NY, USA, 6th edition, 2003.
  22. M. Moyo, M. G. Kulkarni, J. F. Finnie, and J. Van Staden, “After-ripening, light conditions, and cold stratification influence germination of marula [Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst, subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro] seeds,” HortScience, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 119–124, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. A. T. Katsvanga, L. Jim, D. Gwenzi, L. Muhoni, P. Masuka, and M. Moyo, “Characterisation of community identified Uapaca kirkiana phenotypes for domestication,” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 356–366, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  24. T. Ramadhani and E. Schmidt, “Marketing of indigenous fruits in Southern Africa,” in Indigenous Fruit Trees in the Tropics: Domestication, Utilization and Commercialization, F. K. Akinnifesi, R. R. B. Leakey, O. C. Ajay et al., Eds., pp. 224–236, CABI, Wallingford, UK, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  25. C. R. Y. Munthali, Physiology and genetic characterization of selected natural populations of adansonia digitata in Malawi [Ph.D. thesis], Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2012.
  26. C. S. Dlamini, “Provenance and family variation in germination and early seedling growth in Sclerocarya birrea sub-species caffra,” Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 229–235, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  27. P. L. Emanuel, C. M. Shackleton, and J. S. Baxter, “Modelling the sustainable harvest of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra fruits in the South African lowveld,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 214, no. 1–3, pp. 91–103, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. A. C. Kadu, M. Imbuga, R. Jamnadass, and I. K. Dawson, “Genetic management of indigenous fruit trees in southern Africa: a case study of Sclerocarya birrea based on nuclear and chloroplast variation,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 421–427, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus