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International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 2315329, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2315329
Research Article

The Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Food Products of Rhizophora stylosa Fruit (Coffee and Tea Mangrove)

Department of Forest Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, B-200 Monobe, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Yoshito Ohtani; pj.ca.u-ihcok@inatho

Received 2 September 2017; Revised 2 December 2017; Accepted 10 December 2017; Published 10 January 2018

Academic Editor: Kurt Johnsen

Copyright © 2018 Dewi Indah Miranti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of coffee and tea mangrove (locally known in Indonesia) produced from the fruit of Rhizophora stylosa. Furthermore, three raw materials of coffee mangrove were also investigated to clarify their potencies. The crude extracts of five samples were subjected to antioxidant assay using DPPH. The results show that the extract of tea mangrove has the strongest activity; then, it was successfully fractionated using different polarity of solvents and yielded acetone and methanol fractions that had high antioxidant activity. The acetone fraction was purified and gave fractions A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6, but only A2 and A3 indicated antioxidant activity and, therefore, they were subjected to further purification. Fractions A3 (caffeine) and A2 gave AS1 (N,N-dimethyl-L-alanine), AS2 (quercetin-3-O-galactopyranoside), AS3 (dodecanoic acid), and AS4 that had the similar 1H-NMR spectrometric results with AS2, while the methanol fraction did not exhibit clear peaks on the chromatogram by HPLC. Therefore, the precipitation method was conducted to purify this fraction, and the precipitate was analyzed by NMR spectra. The results from 1H and 13C NMR indicate that this fraction is a typical polymer of condensed tannins, containing procyanidin and prodelphinidin units.