International Journal of Forestry Research The latest articles from Hindawi © 2018 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. The Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Food Products of Rhizophora stylosa Fruit (Coffee and Tea Mangrove) Wed, 10 Jan 2018 06:34:18 +0000 The objective of this study is to investigate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of coffee and tea mangrove (locally known in Indonesia) produced from the fruit of Rhizophora stylosa. Furthermore, three raw materials of coffee mangrove were also investigated to clarify their potencies. The crude extracts of five samples were subjected to antioxidant assay using DPPH. The results show that the extract of tea mangrove has the strongest activity; then, it was successfully fractionated using different polarity of solvents and yielded acetone and methanol fractions that had high antioxidant activity. The acetone fraction was purified and gave fractions A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6, but only A2 and A3 indicated antioxidant activity and, therefore, they were subjected to further purification. Fractions A3 (caffeine) and A2 gave AS1 (N,N-dimethyl-L-alanine), AS2 (quercetin-3-O-galactopyranoside), AS3 (dodecanoic acid), and AS4 that had the similar 1H-NMR spectrometric results with AS2, while the methanol fraction did not exhibit clear peaks on the chromatogram by HPLC. Therefore, the precipitation method was conducted to purify this fraction, and the precipitate was analyzed by NMR spectra. The results from 1H and 13C NMR indicate that this fraction is a typical polymer of condensed tannins, containing procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Dewi Indah Miranti, Hideaki Ichiura, and Yoshito Ohtani Copyright © 2018 Dewi Indah Miranti et al. All rights reserved. Association between Soil Fertility and Growth Performance of Planted Shorea macrophylla (de Vriese) after Enrichment Planting at Rehabilitation Sites of Sampadi Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Malaysia Tue, 28 Nov 2017 09:42:23 +0000 A study was conducted to determine the status of soil properties after enrichment planting in comparison to an adjacent secondary forest and to evaluate the effect of enrichment planting of Shorea macrophylla (de Vriese) on the soil fertility status with special reference to Soil Fertility Index (SFI) and Soil Evaluation Factor (SEF) at Sampadi Forest Reserve, Sarawak. The study sites were stands rehabilitated in different years (1996: SM96; 1997: SM97; 1998: SM98; 1999: SM99) and secondary forest (SF). Findings indicated that the soils at rehabilitation sites and SF were strongly acidic in nature, with pH less than 5.50, poor soil exchangeable bases, and nutrient status. The soils were relatively of sandy clay loam to sandy clay. Principal Component Analysis revealed the three most significant components of the soil properties which explained 76.3% of the total variation. At surface soils, SFI was correlated with tree growth parameters of S. macrophylla, indicating that SFI is an applicable soil quality index as compared to SEF. Notwithstanding, a significant association was found between soil available phosphorus and planted S. macrophylla, indicating that soil phosphorus is a better indicator than SFI. Further studies on other environmental factors influencing tree growth performance, early establishment of experimental reforestation at nursery, and field should be implemented to obtain the initial data on seedling growth performance prior to outplanting. Mugunthan Perumal, Mohd Effendi Wasli, Ho Soo Ying, Jonathan Lat, and Hamsawi Sani Copyright © 2017 Mugunthan Perumal et al. All rights reserved. Interaction between Rural People’s Basic Needs and Forest Products: A Case Study of the Katha District of Myanmar Mon, 30 Oct 2017 06:18:41 +0000 The understanding of interaction between rural people and forest products is one of the challenges faced while balancing forest product utilization with forest conservation in Myanmar. This study aims to contribute an effort to such challenges by analyzing the interaction of rural households with forest products in Myanmar. Data were collected using face-to-face questionnaire interviews with 218 households and conducting a rapid tree inventory across 132 circular random plots in selected rural communities around four townships of the Katha District. The empirical results indicate that the 95% of rural households were entirely dependent on forest products. The survey documented 13 main forest products and 54 tree species, which were primarily used for household consumption. Low-income households compared with medium- and high-income households with low educational level () and a small agricultural land area () were found to be more forest-dependent households. Illegal logging, mining, fuel-wood collection, slash-and-burn agriculture, and the establishment of forest plantations were reported as the main causes of forest products depletion. Findings from this study, although at a microlevel, can be used by the Myanmar Forestry Department as baseline information to improve community-based forest management activities. Zar Chi Hlaing, Chiho Kamiyama, and Osamu Saito Copyright © 2017 Zar Chi Hlaing et al. All rights reserved. Site Specific Stem Volume Models for Pinus patula and Pinus oocarpa Wed, 25 Oct 2017 07:42:13 +0000 Sustainable management of timber forests requires availability and adequacy of models for accurate estimation of tree volumes. This study was conducted to develop site specific models for estimating individual total tree stem volume of Pinus patula and Pinus oocarpa at Chongoni Timber Plantation in Central Malawi. A total of 32 trees from Pinus patula compartment and 48 trees from Pinus oocarpa compartment were destructively sampled. Various predictors including diameter at breast height (dbh) and height (ht) were run against total stem volume using a nonlinear mixed-effects modelling approach. The results indicate that the developed site specific models showed a significant association between total stem volume and the predictors (dbh and ht). The developed volume models accounted for at least 99% of the total variation in the total stem volume data. This suggests that application of the developed site specific models is highly recommended when accurate results are required. The appropriateness of the developed models was also supported by the fact that the total relative errors (TRE) of these models were lower (range: −0.04% to 0.06%) than the TRE of some previously developed models (range: −12.40% to 41.70%) tested on the present data. Herbert Malata, Elisha S. Ngulube, and Edward Missanjo Copyright © 2017 Herbert Malata et al. All rights reserved. Agroforestry and Management of Trees in Bunya County, Mayuge District, Uganda Wed, 31 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Woody plant resources continue to disappear in anthropogenic landscapes in Uganda. To slow down further loss of these resources requires the collaboration of farmers in tree planting in agroforestry systems. Tree planting interventions with the collaboration of farmers require a good understanding of tree management practices as well as trees that best satisfy farmers’ needs. We carried out this research to determine (1) the most preferred tree species and reasons why they are preferred, (2) the species conservation statuses, and (3) existing tree management practices and challenges to tree planting. Fourteen priority species valued because they yield edible fruits and timber have been prioritised in this study. Farmers are interested in managing trees but are constrained by many factors, key among which is scarcity of land and financial capital to manage tree planting. Trees are managed in crop fields and around the homestead. From farmers’ reports, the highly valued species are increasing in the landscape. In conclusion, the potential to manage trees in agroforestry systems exists but is hampered by many challenges. Secondly, the liking of trees that supply edible fruits seems to support the welfare maximisation theory which ideally states that rural people manage trees with the aim of having regular access to products that satisfy their household needs and not for income generation. Monica Kyarikunda, Antonia Nyamukuru, Daniel Mulindwa, and John R. S. Tabuti Copyright © 2017 Monica Kyarikunda et al. All rights reserved. Conventional and Indigenous Biodiversity Conservation Approach: A Comparative Study of Jachie Sacred Grove and Nkrabea Forest Reserve Thu, 30 Mar 2017 08:26:31 +0000 Conventional managed forests and sacred groves are seldom assessed to determine their effectiveness in biodiversity conservation strategies. This study investigated tree and insect diversity in Jachie sacred grove (JSG) and Nkrabea forest reserve (NFR) in Ashanti region, Ghana. The study area constituted eight plots of 50 × 50 m along two 300 m long transects. Insects were sampled in eight pitfall traps, diagonally between the transects. Out of 150 individuals, 13 species in NFR and 15 species from JSG were registered. Celtis mildbraedii was the most dominant species in NFR = 43.18% and JSG = 23.58%. Mean DBH showed a significant relationship with basal area in NFR and JSG. Tree diversity and richness were higher in JSG ( = 1.43–2.3 ± 0.10; = 1.8–3.69 ± 0.30) compared to NFR ( = 0.86–1.56 ± 0.09; = 1.1–2.3 ± 0.57). However, insect diversity was higher in NFR ( = 1.34 ± 0.10) than in JSG ( = 0.5 ± 0.005). Camponotus furvus and Pachycondyla tarsata were most abundant in JSG and NFR, respectively. These findings will help conservationists work closely with traditional authorities in protecting sacred groves as key biodiversity hotspots. Samuel Boadi, Collins Ayine Nsor, Daniel Haruna Yakubu, Emmanuel Acquah, and Osei Owusu Antobre Copyright © 2017 Samuel Boadi et al. All rights reserved. Tree Species Diversity and Composition of Miombo Woodlands in South-Central Angola: A Chronosequence of Forest Recovery after Shifting Cultivation Wed, 01 Mar 2017 08:31:38 +0000 The study was carried out in the Cusseque area of the Municipality of Chitembo in south-central Angola. Our objectives were to assess the floristic diversity, the species composition, and stand structure of Miombo woodlands during regeneration after shifting cultivation. A total of 40 plots of 1000 m2 were surveyed and analyzed, corresponding to mature forests/woodlands and three fallow types of different age. The analyses were based on plot inventories of all trees with DBH ≥ 5 cm. A total of 51 woody species, 38 genera, and 19 families were recorded. The dominant family was Fabaceae, with subfamily Caesalpinioideae being very abundant. Shannon Diversity and Evenness were highest in mature forests and young fallows, while the mature forest stands showed the highest species richness. A Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) showed many species shared between the intermediate fallow types, but only few species were shared with young fallows. Mature forests formed a clearly distinct group. This study shows potential pathways of forest recovery in terms of faster regeneration after agricultural abandonment and, thus, the results presented here can be used in future conservation and management plans in order to reduce the pressure on mature forests. Francisco M. P. Gonçalves, Rasmus Revermann, Amândio L. Gomes, Marcos P. M. Aidar, Manfred Finckh, and Norbert Juergens Copyright © 2017 Francisco M. P. Gonçalves et al. All rights reserved. Detecting the Early Genetic Effects of Habitat Degradation in Small Size Remnant Populations of Machilus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (Lauraceae) Thu, 02 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Habitat degradation caused by human activities has reduced the sizes of many plant populations worldwide, generally with negative genetic impacts. However, detecting such impacts in tree species is not easy because trees have long life spans. Machilus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (Lauraceae) is a dominant tree species of broad-leaved evergreen forests distributed primarily along the Japanese coast. Inland habitats for this species have become degraded by human activities. To investigate the effects of habitat degradation on genetic structure, we compared the genetic diversities of mature and juvenile trees of five M. thunbergii populations around Lake Biwa in Japan. Allelic diversity was influenced by past lineage admixture events, but the effects of forest size were not clear. On the other hand, the inbreeding coefficient of the juvenile stage was higher in small populations, whereas large populations maintained panmictic breeding. Also, the extent of genetic differentiation was greater in juveniles than in mature trees. We detected the early genetic effects of habitat degradation in small, isolated M. thunbergii populations, indicating that habitat degradation increases inbreeding and genetic differentiation between populations. Shuntaro Watanabe, Yuko Kaneko, Yuri Maesako, and Naohiko Noma Copyright © 2017 Shuntaro Watanabe et al. All rights reserved. Tree Species Richness, Diversity, and Vegetation Index for Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This study was conducted to investigate the tree species richness and diversity of urban and periurban areas of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria, and produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the territory. Data were collected from urban (Abuja city) and periurban (Lugbe) areas of the FCT using both semistructured questionnaire and inventory of tree species within green areas. In the study location, all trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 10 cm were identified; their dbh was measured and frequency was taken. The NDVI was calculated in ArcGIS 10.3 environment using standard formula. A cumulative total of twenty-nine (29) families were encountered within the FCT, with 27 occurring in Abuja city (urban centre) and 12 in Lugbe (periurban centre) of the FCT. The results of Shannon-Wiener diversity index for the two centres are 3.56 and 2.24 while Shannon’s maximum diversity index is 6.54 (Abuja city) and 5.36 (Lugbe) for the urban (Abuja city) and periurban (Lugbe) areas of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The result of tree species evenness (Shannon’s equitability () index) in urban and periurban centres was 0.54 and 0.42, respectively. The study provided baseline information on urban and periurban forests in the FCT of Nigeria, which can be used for the development of tree species database of the territory. Aladesanmi D Agbelade, Jonathan C. Onyekwelu, and Matthew B. Oyun Copyright © 2017 Aladesanmi D Agbelade et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of -Square, Point Centered Quarter, and -Tree Sampling Methods in Pittosporum undulatum Invaded Woodlands Wed, 11 Jan 2017 06:57:48 +0000 Tree density is an important parameter affecting ecosystems functions and management decisions, while tree distribution patterns affect sampling design. Pittosporum undulatum stands in the Azores are being targeted with a biomass valorization program, for which efficient tree density estimators are required. We compared -Square sampling, Point Centered Quarter Method (PCQM), and -tree sampling with benchmark quadrat (QD) sampling in six 900 m2 plots established at P. undulatum stands in São Miguel Island. A total of 15 estimators were tested using a data resampling approach. The estimated density range (344–5056 trees/ha) was found to agree with previous studies using PCQM only. Although with a tendency to underestimate tree density (in comparison with QD), overall, -Square sampling appeared to be the most accurate and precise method, followed by PCQM. Tree distribution pattern was found to be slightly aggregated in 4 of the 6 stands. Considering (1) the low level of bias and high precision, (2) the consistency among three estimators, (3) the possibility of use with aggregated patterns, and (4) the possibility of obtaining a larger number of independent tree parameter estimates, we recommend the use of -Square sampling in P. undulatum stands within the framework of a biomass valorization program. Lurdes Borges Silva, Mário Alves, Rui Bento Elias, and Luís Silva Copyright © 2017 Lurdes Borges Silva et al. All rights reserved. Bark Thickness Equations for Mixed-Conifer Forest Type in Klamath and Sierra Nevada Mountains of California Sun, 04 Dec 2016 06:46:10 +0000 We studied bark thickness in the mixed-conifer forest type throughout California. Sampling included eight conifer species and covered latitude and elevation gradients. The thickness of tree bark at 1.37 m correlated with diameter at breast height (DBH) and varied among species. Trees exhibiting more rapid growth had slightly thinner bark for a given DBH. Variability in bark thickness obscured differences between sample locations. Model predictions for 50 cm DBH trees of each species indicated that bark thickness was ranked Calocedrus decurrens > Pinus jeffreyi > Pinus lambertiana > Abies concolor > Pseudotsuga menziesii > Abies magnifica > Pinus monticola > Pinus contorta. We failed to find reasonable agreement between our bark thickness data and existing bark thickness regressions used in models predicting fire-induced mortality in the mixed-conifer forest type in California. The fire effects software systems generally underpredicted bark thickness for most species, which could lead to an overprediction in fire-caused tree mortality in California. A model for conifers in Oregon predicted that bark was 49% thinner in Abies concolor and 37% thicker in Pseudotsuga menziesii than our samples from across California, suggesting that more data are needed to validate and refine bark thickness equations within existing fire effects models. Nickolas E. Zeibig-Kichas, Christopher W. Ardis, John-Pascal Berrill, and Joseph P. King Copyright © 2016 Nickolas E. Zeibig-Kichas et al. All rights reserved. Developmental Trends of Black Spruce Fibre Attributes in Maturing Plantations Tue, 08 Nov 2016 12:35:15 +0000 This study assessed the temporal developmental patterns of commercially relevant fibre attributes (tracheid length and diameters, wall thickness, specific surface area, wood density, microfibril angle, fibre coarseness, and modulus of elasticity) and their interrelationships within maturing black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) plantations. A size-based stratified random sample procedure within 5 semimature plantations located in the Canadian Boreal Forest Region was used to select 50 trees from which radial cross-sectional xylem sequences at breast-height (1.3 m) were cut and analyzed. Statistically, the graphical and linear correlation analyses indicated that the attributes exhibited significant () relationships among themselves and with morphological tree characteristics. Relative variation of each annually measured attribute declined with increasing size class (basal area quintile). The transitional shifts in temporal correlation patterns occurring at the time of approximate crown closure where suggestive of intrinsic differences in juvenile and mature wood formation processes. The temporal cumulative development patterns of all 8 of the annually measured attributes varied systematically with tree size and exhibited the most rapid rates of change before the trees reached a cambial age of 20 years. At approximately 50 years after establishment, plantation mean attribute values were not dissimilar from those reported for more mature natural-origin stands. Peter F. Newton Copyright © 2016 Peter F. Newton. All rights reserved. Economic Contribution to Local Livelihoods and Households Dependency on Dry Land Forest Products in Hammer District, Southeastern Ethiopia Wed, 26 Oct 2016 09:18:05 +0000 The study was conducted in Hammer district, Southern Ethiopia, to provide empirical evidence on economic contribution to local livelihoods and households dependency on dry forest products. One agropastoral and two pastoral kebeles were purposively selected, and data was collected through household survey, group discussions, market assessments, and field observation. A total of 164 households, selected based on a random sampling procedure, were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The study found that income from forest products contributes 21.4% of the total annual household income. The major dry forest products include honey, fuel wood, gum and resin, and crafts and construction materials, contributing 49%, 39%, 6%, and 6% of the forest income, respectively. Households of the pastoral site earned more forest income and were relatively more dependent on forest products income than those in the agropastoral study site. Significant variation was also found among income groups: households with higher total annual income obtain more forest income than those with lower income, but they are relatively less dependent on forest products than the lower counterpart. Besides, various socioeconomic and contextual factors were found to influence forest income and dependency. The findings of the study provide valuable information up on which important implications for dry land forest development and management strategies can be drawn. Dagm Fikir, Wubalem Tadesse, and Abdella Gure Copyright © 2016 Dagm Fikir et al. All rights reserved. Carbon Stocks in the Small Estuarine Mangroves of Geza and Mtimbwani, Tanga, Tanzania Wed, 28 Sep 2016 14:20:40 +0000 Mangrove forests offer important ecosystem services, including their high capacity for carbon sequestration and stocking. However, they face rapid degradation and loss of ecological resilience particularly at local scales due to human pressure. We conducted inventory of mangrove forests to characterise forest stand structure and estimate carbon stocks in the small estuarine mangroves of Geza and Mtimbwani in Tanga, Tanzania. Forest structure, above-ground carbon (AGC), and below-ground carbon (BGC) were characterised. Soil carbon was estimated to 1 m depth using loss on ignition procedure. Six common mangrove species were identified dominated by Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. and Rhizophora mucronata Lamarck. Forest stand density and basal area were 1740 stems ha−1 and 17.2 m2 ha−1 for Geza and 2334 stems ha−1 and 30.3 m2 ha−1 for Mtimbwani. Total ecosystem carbon stocks were 414.6 Mg C ha−1 for Geza and 684.9 Mg C ha−1 for Mtimbwani. Soil carbon contributed over 65% of these stocks, decreasing with depth. Mid zones of the mangrove stands had highest carbon stocks. These data demonstrate that studied mangroves are potential for carbon projects and provide the baseline for monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) to support the projects. Edmond Alavaisha and Mwita M. Mangora Copyright © 2016 Edmond Alavaisha and Mwita M. Mangora. All rights reserved. Livelihoods and Welfare Impacts of Forest Comanagement Mon, 26 Sep 2016 16:41:04 +0000 Comanagement programmes are gaining popularity among governments as one way of improving rural livelihoods. However, evidence of their effects on the livelihoods and welfare remains unclear. We used the sustainable livelihoods framework and stated preference techniques to assess the livelihoods and welfare impacts of forest comanagement on 213 households in Zomba and Ntchisi districts. The results show that approximately 63% of respondents perceive that, overall, comanagement has had no impact on their livelihoods. However, the programme is enhancing financial capital by introducing externally subsidised income generating activities and human and social capital among some community members through training programmes. A majority of households (80%) are willing to pay annual membership fees to participate in the programme (mean = 812 Malawi Kwacha), because of perceived potential future benefits. Education, gender of the household head, a positive perception of current livelihoods benefits, and a position on the committee increase household willingness to pay membership fees. However, the positive willingness to pay despite the negative perception of overall livelihoods impacts may also demonstrate the weaknesses of relying on stated preference surveys alone in estimating welfare effects. Linda Chinangwa, Andrew S. Pullin, and Neal Hockley Copyright © 2016 Linda Chinangwa et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Distribution of Forest Management Areas by the Forest Environmental Tax in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:50:15 +0000 Forest management approaches vary according to the needs of individual municipalities with unique geographic conditions and local social contexts. Accordingly, there are two types of subsidies: a unified national subsidy and a prefecture-level subsidy, mainly from forest environmental taxes. The latter is a local tax. Our focus is on examining forest management using these two types of taxes (i.e., central and prefecture-level) and their correlations with social and natural environmental factors. In this paper, we examine the spatial distribution of management areas using subsidies from the central government, the Forestry Agency of Japan, and prefectural forest environmental taxes in Ishikawa. In concrete terms, the spatial correlations of the management areas under two tax schemes are compared with the natural hazard areas (as a natural environmental factor) and areas with high aging rates (as a social factor). The results are tested to see whether the correlations of areas with the two factors are significant, to examine whether the taxes are used for areas with natural and social needs. From the result, positive correlations are identified between the distribution of management areas and natural hazard areas and between the distribution of management areas and areas with high aging rates. Yuta Uchiyama and Ryo Kohsaka Copyright © 2016 Yuta Uchiyama and Ryo Kohsaka. All rights reserved. Modelling Analysis of Forestry Input-Output Elasticity in China Sun, 18 Sep 2016 08:48:43 +0000 Based on an extended economic model and space econometrics, this essay analyzed the spatial distributions and interdependent relationships of the production of forestry in China; also the input-output elasticity of forestry production were calculated. Results figure out there exists significant spatial correlation in forestry production in China. Spatial distribution is mainly manifested as spatial agglomeration. The output elasticity of labor force is equal to 0.6649, and that of capital is equal to 0.8412. The contribution of land is significantly negative. Labor and capital are the main determinants for the province-level forestry production in China. Thus, research on the province-level forestry production should not ignore the spatial effect. The policy-making process should take into consideration the effects between provinces on the production of forestry. This study provides some scientific technical support for forestry production. Guofeng Wang, Jiancheng Chen, and Xiangzheng Deng Copyright © 2016 Guofeng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Economic Valuation of Nontimber Forest Products under the Changing Climate in Kilombero District, Tanzania Wed, 31 Aug 2016 16:26:30 +0000 Sustainable collection of Nontimber Forest Products (NTFPs) for trade is an appropriate measure to increase people’s adaptive capacity against adverse effects of climate change. However, information on the economic value for NTFPs for subsistence use and trade under the changing climate is inadequate, particularly in households around Iyondo Forest Reserve (IFR), in Kilombero District, Tanzania. The study identified and quantified NTFPs used for subsistence and trade, estimated its economic value, and examined factors influencing supply of NTFPs at household level. Data were collected through Focus Group Discussions, key informant interviews, questionnaire survey of 208 sample households, and spot market analysis to randomly selected NTFPs collectors, sellers, and buyers. The study identified 12 NTFPs used for subsistence and trade, which was evaluated in terms of the mean annual value per household. The mean annual value of the identified NTFPs ranged from TZS 4700 to 886 600. The estimated economic value of the studied NTFPs was TZS 51.4 billion (USD 36 million). The supply of NTFPs at household level was influenced by distance to the forest, change in forest management regime, seasonality, and change in rainfall pattern. NTFPs around IFR have high economic value which portrays the potential of developing them to enhance households’ adaptive capacity against climate change adverse effects. Chelestino Balama, Suzana Augustino, Danford Mwaiteleke, Leopord P. Lusambo, and Fortunatus B. S. Makonda Copyright © 2016 Chelestino Balama et al. All rights reserved. Tree Species Diversity, Richness, and Similarity in Intact and Degraded Forest in the Tropical Rainforest of the Congo Basin: Case of the Forest of Likouala in the Republic of Congo Mon, 08 Aug 2016 09:33:46 +0000 Trees species diversity, richness, and similarity were studied in fifteen plots of the tropical rainforests in the northeast of the Republic of Congo, based on trees inventories conducted on fifteen 0.25 ha plots installed along different types of forests developed on terra firma, seasonally flooded, and on flooded terra. In all of the plots installed, all trees with diameter at breast height, DBH ≥ 5 cm, were measured. The Shannon diversity index, species richness, equitability, and species dominance were computed to see the variation in tree community among plots but also between primary forest and secondary forest. A total of 1611 trees representing 114 species and 35 families were recorded from a total area of 3.75 ha. Euphorbiaceae was the dominant family in the forest with 12 species, followed by Fabaceae-Mimosoideae (10 species) and Phyllanthaceae (6 species) and Guttiferae (6 species). The biodiversity did not vary greatly from plot to plot on the whole of the study area (3.75 ha). The low value of Shannon index was obtained in plot 11 () whereas the highest value was obtained in plot 12 (). The values of this index vary from 0.23 to 0.95 in plots P11 and P15, respectively. Results obtained revealed high biodiversity of trees of the forest of Impfondo-Dongou. The information on tree species structure and function can provide baseline information for conservation of the biodiversity of the tropical forest in this area. Suspense Averti Ifo, Jean-Marie Moutsambote, Félix Koubouana, Joseph Yoka, Saint Fédriche Ndzai, Leslie Nucia Orcellie Bouetou-Kadilamio, Helischa Mampouya, Charlotte Jourdain, Yannick Bocko, Alima Brigitte Mantota, Mackline Mbemba, Dulsaint Mouanga-Sokath, Roland Odende, Lenguiya Romarick Mondzali, Yeto Emmanuel Mampouya Wenina, Brice Chérubins Ouissika, and Loumeto Jean Joel Copyright © 2016 Suspense Averti Ifo et al. All rights reserved. Synchrony in Leafing, Flowering, and Fruiting Phenology of Senegalia senegal within Lake Baringo Woodland, Kenya: Implication for Conservation and Tree Improvement Tue, 10 May 2016 08:01:21 +0000 Leafing, flowering, and fruiting patterns of Senegalia senegal were studied over a period of 24 months from January 2014 to December 2015. The phenological events of the species are bimodal and follow the rainfall patterns. The leafing phase starts during the onset of rains and lasts for 18 weeks. New leaves continued to appear on the new shoots while old leaves persisted to the leaf fall period. Flowering event takes 12 weeks and is concentrated in the months of high relative humidity (April and October) with one-month peak flowering period. Fruiting phase starts at the peak of the rainy seasons (May and November) and peaks in June and December. This phase lasted for 14 weeks. The fruits mature towards the end of the rainy season (January/February and July/August). The fruits open for dispersal mainly in February/March and September during the peak dry season. High synchrony index (SI) was found in leafing (SI: 0.87), flowering (SI: 0.75), and fruiting (SI: 0.85) events among the populations. Temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture content were significantly correlated with the phenological events. Significant variations in floral morphology and fruits traits were also evident. Seed collections should be undertaken in the months of January/February and July/August. Stephen F. Omondi, David W. Odee, George O. Ongamo, James I. Kanya, and Damase P. Khasa Copyright © 2016 Stephen F. Omondi et al. All rights reserved. Role of Forest Resources to Local Livelihoods: The Case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya Wed, 16 Mar 2016 14:13:00 +0000 Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%), construction material (18%), and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (%) were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (%) were significantly different among wealth classes. Poor households were more dependent on forests resources. However, in absolute terms, the rich households derived higher forest income. These results provide valuable information on the role of forest resources to livelihoods and could be applied in developing forest conservation policies for enhanced ecosystem services and livelihoods. D. K. Langat, E. K. Maranga, A. A. Aboud, and J. K. Cheboiwo Copyright © 2016 D. K. Langat et al. All rights reserved. Biomass and Soil Carbon Stocks in Wet Montane Forest, Monteverde Region, Costa Rica: Assessments and Challenges for Quantifying Accumulation Rates Mon, 29 Feb 2016 09:48:50 +0000 We measured carbon stocks at two forest reserves in the cloud forest region of Monteverde, comparing cleared land, experimental secondary forest plots, and mature forest at each location to assess the effectiveness of reforestation in sequestering biomass and soil carbon. The biomass carbon stock measured in the mature forest at the Monteverde Institute is similar to other measurements of mature tropical montane forest biomass carbon in Costa Rica. Local historical records and the distribution of large trees suggest a mature forest age of greater than 80 years. The forest at La Calandria lacks historical documentation, and dendrochronological dating is not applicable. However, based on the differences in tree size, above-ground biomass carbon, and soil carbon between the Monteverde Institute and La Calandria sites, we estimate an age difference of at least 30 years of the mature forests. Experimental secondary forest plots at both sites have accumulated biomass at lower than expected rates, suggesting local limiting factors, such as nutrient limitation. We find that soil carbon content is primarily a function of time and that altitudinal differences between the study sites do not play a role. Lawrence H. Tanner, Megan T. Wilckens, Morgan A. Nivison, and Katherine M. Johnson Copyright © 2016 Lawrence H. Tanner et al. All rights reserved. Allometric Models for Estimating Tree Volume and Aboveground Biomass in Lowland Forests of Tanzania Thu, 14 Jan 2016 07:29:28 +0000 Models to assist management of lowland forests in Tanzania are in most cases lacking. Using a sample of 60 trees which were destructively harvested from both dry and wet lowland forests of Dindili in Morogoro Region (30 trees) and Rondo in Lindi Region (30 trees), respectively, this study developed site specific and general models for estimating total tree volume and aboveground biomass. Specifically the study developed (i) height-diameter (ht-dbh) models for trees found in the two sites, (ii) total, merchantable, and branches volume models, and (iii) total and sectional aboveground biomass models of trees found in the two study sites. The findings show that site specific ht-dbh model appears to be suitable in estimating tree height since the tree allometry was found to differ significantly between studied forests. The developed general volume models yielded unbiased mean prediction error and hence can adequately be applied to estimate tree volume in dry and wet lowland forests in Tanzania. General aboveground biomass model appears to yield biased estimates; hence, it is not suitable when accurate results are required. In this case, site specific biomass allometric models are recommended. Biomass allometric models which include basic wood density are highly recommended for improved estimates accuracy when such information is available. Wilson Ancelm Mugasha, Ezekiel Edward Mwakalukwa, Emannuel Luoga, Rogers Ernest Malimbwi, Eliakimu Zahabu, Dos Santos Silayo, Gael Sola, Philippe Crete, Matieu Henry, and Almas Kashindye Copyright © 2016 Wilson Ancelm Mugasha et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Disturbance Regimes on Spatial Patterns of Tree Species in Three Sites in a Tropical Evergreen Forest in Vietnam Mon, 11 Jan 2016 08:05:11 +0000 The effects of disturbance regimes on the spatial patterns of the five most abundant species were investigated in three sites in a tropical forest at Xuan Nha Nature Reserve, Vietnam. Three permanent one-ha plots were established in undisturbed forest (UDF), lightly disturbed forest (LDF), and highly disturbed forest (HDF). All trees ≥5 cm DBH were measured in twenty-five 20 m × 20 m subplots. A total of 57 tree species belonging to 26 families were identified in the three forest types. The UDF had the highest basal area (30 m2 ha−1), followed by the LDF (17 m2 ha−1) and the HDF (13.0 m2 ha−1). The UDF also had the highest tree density (751 individuals ha−1) while the HDF held the lowest (478 individuals ha−1). Across all species, there were 417 “juveniles,” 267 “subadults,” and 67 “adults” in the UDF, while 274 “juveniles,” 230 “subadults,” and 36 “adults” were recorded in the LDF. 238 “juveniles,” 227 “subadults,” and 13 “adults” were obtained in the HDF. The univariate and bivariate data with pair- and mark-correlation functions of intra- and interspecific interactions of the five most abundant species changed in the three forest types. Most species indicated clumping or regular distributions at small scale, but a high ratio of negative interspecific small-scale associations was recorded in both the LDF and HDF sites. These were, however, rare in the UDF. Do Thi Ngoc Le, Nguyen Van Thinh, Nguyen The Dung, and Ralph Mitlöhner Copyright © 2016 Do Thi Ngoc Le et al. All rights reserved. Agricultural and Forest Land Use Potential for REDD+ among Smallholder Land Users in Rural Ghana Wed, 06 Jan 2016 09:46:11 +0000 Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation with other benefits (REDD+) mechanism is supposed to address the reversal of forest-based land degradation, conservation of existing carbon stocks, and enhancement of carbon sequestration. The Bosomtwe District is predominantly agrarian with potentials for climate change mitigation through REDD+ mechanism among smallholder farmers. The limited knowledge and practices of this strategy among farmers are limiting potentials of mitigating climate change. This paper assesses the REDD+ potentials among smallholder farmers in the district. Using a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative design, 152 farmer-respondents were purposively sampled and interviewed, using snowballing method from 12 communities. Quantitative data gathered were subjected to the tools of contingency and frequencies analysis, embedded in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) v.16. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Results indicate that respondents have knowledge of REDD+ but not the intended benefit sharing regimes that can accrue to the smallholder farmers. Farmers’ willingness to practice REDD+ will be based on the motivation and incentive potentials of the strategies. The Forestry Services Division should promote the practice of REDD+ among smallholder farmers through education, to whip and sustain interest in the strategy. Divine O. Appiah, John T. Bugri, Eric K. Forkuo, and Sampson Yamba Copyright © 2016 Divine O. Appiah et al. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of the Use of Simulated Annealing to Optimize Thinning Rates for Single Even-Aged Stands Mon, 30 Nov 2015 11:15:19 +0000 We evaluated the potential of simulated annealing as a reliable method for optimizing thinning rates for single even-aged stands. Four types of yield models were used as benchmark models to examine the algorithm’s versatility. Thinning rate, which was constrained to 0–50% every 5 years at stand ages of 10–45 years, was optimized to maximize the net present value for one fixed rotation term (50 years). The best parameters for the simulated annealing were chosen from 113 patterns, using the mean of the net present value from 39 runs to ensure the best performance. We compared the solutions with those from coarse full enumeration to evaluate the method’s reliability and with 39 runs of random search to evaluate its efficiency. In contrast to random search, the best run of simulated annealing for each of the four yield models resulted in a better solution than coarse full enumeration. However, variations in the objective function for two yield models obtained with simulated annealing were significantly larger than those of random search. In conclusion, simulated annealing with optimized parameters is more efficient for optimizing thinning rates than random search. However, it is necessary to execute multiple runs to obtain reliable solutions. Kai Moriguchi, Tatsuhito Ueki, and Masashi Saito Copyright © 2015 Kai Moriguchi et al. All rights reserved. A Hidden Pitfall for REDD: Analysis of Power Relation in Participatory Forest Management on Whether It Is an Obstacle or a Reliever on REDD Pathway Tue, 10 Nov 2015 14:14:39 +0000 Power relation among stakeholders is a key concept in collaborative approaches. This study aims to examine the reality of the acclaimed power sharing in Participatory Forest Management (PFM) and implication of existing power relation to the national REDD+ programme in Tanzania. The study involved a review of PFM policy and legal supporting documents; meta-analysis of previous studies done at two sites known to have succeeded in PFM; and empirical study at Kolo-Hills forests. Methods used include the meta-analysis of existing literature; Household Questionnaire Survey; Focused Group Discussion; and key person unstructured interviews. Results revealed that a large part of the PFM processes involved power struggle instead of power sharing. REDD+ pilot was perceived to have succeeded in improving PFM only in villages where the majority of the community about 70% experienced higher levels of inclusiveness and power balance with other PFM stakeholders in PFM processes. Power imbalance and power struggle were also noted in the REDD+ project adoption processes. Thus power relations exercised under PFM fall under potential obstacle rather than a reliever to the REDD+ programme. The study recommends reviewing of PFM legal frameworks to strengthen community empowerment for effectiveness of REDD+ on PFM platform. Angelingis Akwilini Makatta, Faustin Peter Maganga, and Amos Enock Majule Copyright © 2015 Angelingis Akwilini Makatta et al. All rights reserved. Phenotypic Variation in Fruit Morphology among Provenances of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:07:10 +0000 Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. is a multipurpose fruit tree which is very useful in providing food security and meeting nutritional and economic needs. This study was conducted to assess eighteen provenances of Sclerocarya birrea planted in Mangochi, Malawi. The trial was assessed for fruit traits at fifteen years of age. There were significant () variations among the provenances in number of fruits, fruit weight, pulp weight, seed weight, fruit length, and diameter. Magunde provenance from Mozambique had the highest mean number of fruits, 2196 ± 200. Mangochi and Moamba provenances from Malawi and Mozambique were the most outstanding in the other parameters measured attaining the mean fruit weight of 20.89 ± 0.25 g and 25.67 ± 0.67 g, pulp weight of 25.70 ± 0.08 g and 21.55 ± 0.83 g, seed weight of 4.81 ± 0.35 g and 4.12 ± 0.18 g, fruit length of 2.61 ± 0.14 cm and 2.33 ± 0.07 cm, and fruit diameter of 2.33 ± 0.15 cm and 1.97 ± 0.08 cm, respectively. There was no significant () correlation between number of fruits and the other fruit traits. However, there were significant () and strong positive relationships between fruit weight and pulp weight () and fruit length and diameter (). This suggests that fruit weight can be used indirectly for selection of pulp. Further studies should investigate fruit taste quality of products from the fruits. Idah Mkwezalamba, Chimuleke R. Y. Munthali, and Edward Missanjo Copyright © 2015 Idah Mkwezalamba et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Spacing Regimes on Growth, Yield, and Wood Properties of Tectona grandis at Longuza Forest Plantation, Tanzania Thu, 13 Aug 2015 11:21:07 +0000 This study examined the effects of planting spacing on growth, yield, and wood properties of teak planted at square spacing regimes of 2 m, 3 m, and 4 m at Longuza Forest Plantation, Tanzania. To achieve this, tree, stand, and wood properties were studied at age of 14 years. Results showed that diameter at breast height and total height increased with increasing spacing. Mean annual increment increased significantly with increasing spacing while spacing did not have significant effect on total volume production and basal area. Basic density is also not affected by spacing while heartwood proportion increases as planting spacing increases. All studied wood properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, compression strength tangential to grain, and shear tangential to the grain) except cleavage tangential to grain were not significantly affected by increasing spacing. It is recommended to use the spacing of 3 × 3 m, but if thinning can be done before onset of competition at 5 years, the currently used spacing of 2.5 × 2.5 m can still be used. However, the use of a spacing of 4 × 4 m can give at least 50% heartwood at shorter rotation age of 30 years. Eliakimu Zahabu, Tumaini Raphael, Shabani Athumani Omari Chamshama, Said Iddi, and Rogers Ernest Malimbwi Copyright © 2015 Eliakimu Zahabu et al. All rights reserved. Structural Characterization of Prosopis africana Populations (Guill., Perrott., and Rich.) Taub in Benin Wed, 29 Jul 2015 07:40:49 +0000 The structural characterization of Prosopis africana of Benin was studied on the basis of forest inventory conducted in three different vegetation types (savannah, fallow, and field) and three climate zones. The data collected in 139 plots of 1000 m2 each related to the diameter at breast (1.3 m above ground), total height, identification, and measurement of DBH related P. africana species height. Tree-ring parameters such as Blackman and Green indices, basal area, average diameter, height of Lorey, and density were calculated and interpreted. Dendrometric settings of vegetation type and climate zone (Guinea, Sudan-Guinea, and Sudan) were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA). There is a significant difference in dendrometric settings according to the type of vegetation and climate zone. Basal area, density, and average diameter are, respectively, 4.47 m2/ha, 34.95 stems/ha, and 37.02 cm in the fields; 3.01 m2/ha, 34.74 stems/ha, and 33.66 cm in fallows; 3.31 m2/ha, 52.39 stems/ha, and 29.61 cm in the savannahs. The diameter distribution and height observed at the theoretical Weibull distribution show that the diameter and height of the populations of the species are present in all positively skewed distributions or asymmetric left, a characteristic of single-species stands with predominance of young individuals or small diameters or heights. Towanou Houètchégnon, Dossou Seblodo Judes Charlemagne Gbèmavo, Christine Ajokè Ifètayo Nougbodé Ouinsavi, and Nestor Sokpon Copyright © 2015 Towanou Houètchégnon et al. All rights reserved.