International Journal of Food Science / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Enrichment of Whole Wheat Cocoa Biscuits with Encapsulated Grape Skin Extract

Table 1

Comparison of literature works on the enrichment of biscuits with grape phenolic extracts or powder from grape byproducts. TPC: total phenols content; GAE: gallic acid equivalents; dm: dry matter; TEAC’: trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (/g) based on ABTS, ORAC, or DPPH radical assay; FRAP: ferric reducing activity power; ↑: increase; ↓: decrease; constant; the concentration required to obtain 50% DPPH radical scavenging.

Biscuit recipePhenolic extractEnrichment levelMain results related to final cooked productReference

Whole wheat flour (100 g), sucrose (30 g), extra-virgin olive oil (25 mL), bitter cocoa powder (5 g), water (24 mL), baking powder (1.6 g)Ethanol red grape skin extract encapsulated into maltodextrins, TPC 111.23 /g1.2 - 2.3 - 3.5% on dough weight, corresponding to 2.2%, 4.4% and 6.5% on flour weight, and 245, 489 and 723 /100 from 5.49 (control) to 8.13 – 13.05 – 14.79 (corresponding to 90 – 205 -244% ↑).  
from 24 (control) to 39 – 42 – 59 (corresponding to 62 – 77 -145% ↑).
from 0.49 (control) to 0.52 - 0.68 - 0.57 (no significant ↑).
from 2.20 (control) to 2.67 – 2.22 - 2.31 (no significant ↑).
TPC () from 1.89 (control) to 2.67 – 3.26 – 4.43 (corresponding to 42 – 72 - 134% ↑).
40% of extract phenols not extractable from the dough.
No influence of extract addition on oxidative stability.
No influence of cooking on TPC and TEAC.
↓ in L, a, b, H(°), C.
Consumer test (104 subjects): no effect on overall liking.  
Two clusters of subjects with opposite preferences: liking ↑ for Cluster 1 and ↓ for Cluster 2 as the GSM addition level ↑.
Present work

Flour (100 g), sugar (34.5 g), shortening (16.4 g), lecithin (1.4 g), baking powder (1.1 g), salt (0.4 g), water (32.73 g) for the control or (40 g) for enriched cookies.Commercial GSE 95% phenols as such (bulk extract) or encapsulated by spray-drying with mesquite gum (44%) and zein (56%) (EEG), or with maltodextrin (34%) and zein (66%) (EEM) 
TPC of encapsulated extract not specified.
1.67% (on flour weight) of bulk GSE or 5.1% of EEG, 5.05% of EEM.
Addition corresponding to theoretical 1.2% GAE on biscuit weight.
(referred to dm of biscuit extract) from 0.8 to 6.8 – 7.5 – 7.8 (corresponding to 750 – 837 -875% ↑), showing a thermal protection by encapsulation.  
↓ in L, ↑ in a, b.
Quantitative descriptive analysis QDA® (11 selected panellists): darker biscuits (with more homogenous colour with EEG and EEM); < sweetness perception; aromas and flavours related to whole flour; > cardboard flavour; > dry mouth sensation and < tenderness.
Affective sensory evaluation (126 untrained panellists): same preference for control cookie and enriched with EEM.
Davidov-Pardo et al. [16]

Semolina (100 g), sugar (35 g), extra-virgin olive oil (16 mL), water 25 mL (control) or 10 mL (enriched cookies)Ethanol red grape pomace extract TPC: 2126 /L45 mL of extract per 100 g wheat flour, corresponding to 96 /100 TPC (/g) from 0.44 to 0.63 /g (corresponding to 43% ↑).
from 0.47 to 0.79 (corresponding to 68% ↑).  
from 0.18 to 0.21.  
↑ in L, a, ↓ in b.
40% ↓ in anthocyanins after kneading and cooking.  
QDA® (8 panellists): more intense colour, fruity odour, sour taste but < friability.
Pasqualone et al. [17]

Recipe as AACC method 54-21.Freeze dried white grape skins (from pomace).  
TPC: 31.22
10 - 20 - 30% replacement of flour weightTPC () ↑ from 0.85 to 2.11 – 3.34 – 4.45 (corresponding to 148 – 293- 423% ↑).
from 1270 to 3390 – 5120 – 7550 (corresponding to 167 – 303 -494% ↑).  
from 254 to 273 – 261 – 289.  
↑ biscuit diameter, ↓ biscuit thickness, ↓ L, a, ↑ b.
Maximum 10% enrichment for sensorial acceptance.
Mildner-Szkudlarz et al. [18]

Wheat flour (100 g), fructose (9.21 g), sugar (20.25 g), shortening (11.87 g), NaHCO3 (0.4 g), salt (0.69 g),water (16 g), fortification agent (8 g, only for enriched biscuits)Defatted grape seed powder  
TPC: not reported
8% replacement of flour weight↑ TPC () from 8.12 to 17.90 (corresponding to 120% ↑), ↓ peroxide value, ↑ antioxidant capacity (as %  ) from 1.16 to 43.87%.
↑ diameter, thickness, ↓moisture content, ↓ L, b, ↑ a, ↓ hardness.
Sensory analysis (10 trained panellists): ↓ flavour score.
Aksoylu et al. [19]

Refined wheat flour, skimmed milk powder, sugar, margarine, baking powder, butter (amount not reported)Wine grape pomace powder from Cabernet Sauvignon.
TPC: not reported
5 – 10 – 15 - 20% replacement of flour weight↑TPC (/g) from 0.041 (control) to 0.095 - 0.213 - 0.305 – 0.460 (corresponding to 132 - 413 - 644 - 1022% ↑).
↑ antioxidant activity as FRAP (mg/g) from 4.625 (control) to 11.651 – 29.669 – 51.862 - 75.976 (corresponding to 152 – 541 – 1021 - 1542% ↑).
↑anthocyanins (mg/g) from 0.163 (control) to 2.033 – 2.864 – 3.311 – 3.512 (corresponding to 1147 – 1657 – 1931 – 2055% ↑).
↑flavonoids (mg CTE/g) from 0.320 (control) to 0.627 – 0.887 – 1.347 – 1.133 (corresponding to 96 – 177 – 321 – 254% ↑).
↑tannins (TAE mg/g) from 0.160 (control) to 0.213 – 0.720 – 1.171 – 1.766 (corresponding to 33 – 350 – 632 – 1004% ↑).
↑ water absorbing water, ↑ ash, ↑ colour intensity.
Sensory analysis (40 panellists): maximum score to 5% enrichment.
Maner et al.[20]