International Journal of Food Science / 2019 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Enrichment of Whole Wheat Cocoa Biscuits with Encapsulated Grape Skin Extract

Table 4

Influence of the addition of encapsulated grape skin extract at different levels (0, 1.2, 2.3, and 3.5% on dough weight) on biscuit consumers’ preference (liking for appearance, odour, taste, flavour, texture, overall liking). Values are means ± SD. The same superscript letter in the same raw indicates means are not statistically different according to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Fishers’ least significant test (p <0.05).

Extract addition Fp
0%1.2%2.3%3.5%

Total (n=104)
 appearance5.07 ± 0.175.21 ± 0.175.17 ± 0.175.00 ± 0.190.9320.425
 odour4.32 ± 0.174.20 ± 0.154.33 ± 0.174.24 ± 0.170.3110.818
 taste4.34 ± 0.184.31 ± 0.174.54 ± 0.184.38 ± 0.180.7430.527
 flavour4.29 ± 0.174.58 ± 0.174.52 ± 0.194.38 ± 0.181.3340.263
 texture4.13 ± 0.24.51 ± 0.24.47 ± 0.24.66 ± 0.22.7760.041
 overall liking4.50 ± 0.174.60 ± 0.164.72 ± 0.164.59 ± 0.170.6590.578

Cluster 1 (n=55)
 appearance4.96 ± 0.265.33 ± 0.245.29 ± 0.265.35 ± 0.261.9570.123
 odour4.00 ± 0.234.13 ± 0.214.35 ± 0.274.51 ± 0.242.2270.087
 taste3.87 ± 0.24.11 ± 0.24.76 ± 0.25.07 ± 0.212.5990.001
 flavour3.95 ± 0.24.60 ± 0.24.82 ± 0.24.93 ± 0.28.5050.001
 texture3.78 ± 0.24.47 ± 0.34.85 ± 0.35.22 ± 0.28.6980.001
 overall liking4.04 ± 0.24.42 ± 0.24.91 ± 0.25.35 ± 0.215.1340.001

Cluster 2 (n=49)
 appearance5.18 ± 0.25.08 ± 0.25.04 ± 0.24.61 ± 0.22.7330.05
 odour4.67 ± 0.24.29 ± 0.24.31 ± 0.23.94 ± 0.24.1530.001
 taste4.51 ± 0.24.55 ± 0.24.04 ± 0.24.04 ± 0.213.3290.001
 flavour4.67 ± 0.24.55 ± 0.24.18 ± 0.23.76 ± 0.27.3010.001
 texture4.86 ± 0.24.53 ± 0.24.29 ± 0.23.61 ± 0.23.6840.05
 overall liking5.02 ± 0.24.80 ± 0.24.51 ± 0.23.73 ± 0.219.2860.001