International Journal of Food Science The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Evaluation of Catalytic Effects of Chymotrypsin and Cu2+ for Development of UV-Spectroscopic Method for Gelatin-Source Differentiation Sun, 08 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The consumers interest in gelatin authentication is high due to allergic reactions and adoption of Halal and Kosher eating cultures. This research investigated browning development due to enzymatic hydrolysis and presence of Cu2+ during Maillard reaction of fish, porcine, and bovine gelatin. The rate of browning index samples showed two phases—rapid and slow—for all the gelatin samples and changes in browning index () were increased (>100%) in presence of Cu2+. of enzymatic hydrolysates were different among the gelatin species. Fish gelatin hydrolyzate displayed > 400% increase in browning in the first six hours compared to gelatin hydrolyzates from porcine (200%) and bovine (140%). The variation in of chymotrypsin digested gelatin in presence of Cu2+ could be valuable for the development of an efficient UV-spectroscopic method for gelatin differentiation. Anis Hamizah, Ademola Monsur Hammed, Tawakalit Tope Asiyanbi-H, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani, Irwandi Jaswir, and Nurrulhidayah binti Ahamad Fadzillah Copyright © 2017 Anis Hamizah et al. All rights reserved. Processing Challenges and Opportunities of Camel Dairy Products Tue, 03 Oct 2017 09:42:40 +0000 A review on the challenges and opportunities of processing camel milk into dairy products is provided with an objective of exploring the challenges of processing and assessing the opportunities for developing functional products from camel milk. The gross composition of camel milk is similar to bovine milk. Nonetheless, the relative composition, distribution, and the molecular structure of the milk components are reported to be different. Consequently, manufacturing of camel dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt, or butter using the same technology as for dairy products from bovine milk can result in processing difficulties and products of inferior quality. However, scientific evidence points to the possibility of transforming camel milk into products by optimization of the processing parameters. Additionally, camel milk has traditionally been used for its medicinal values and recent scientific studies confirm that it is a rich source of bioactive, antimicrobial, and antioxidant substances. The current literature concerning product design and functional potential of camel milk is fragmented in terms of time, place, and depth of the research. Therefore, it is essential to understand the fundamental features of camel milk and initiate detailed multidisciplinary research to fully explore and utilize its functional and technological properties. Tesfemariam Berhe, Eyassu Seifu, Richard Ipsen, Mohamed Y. Kurtu, and Egon Bech Hansen Copyright © 2017 Tesfemariam Berhe et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Blanching and Natural Convection Solar Drying on Quality Characteristics of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Sun, 10 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The objective of this work was to determine the effects of blanching and two drying methods, open-sun drying and natural convection solar drying, on the quality characteristics of red pepper. A 2 × 3 factorial design with experimental factors as 2 drying methods (open-sun drying and use of solar dryer) and 3 levels of pepper blanching (unblanched, blanched in plain water, and blanched in 2% NaCl) was conducted. Dried pepper samples were analysed for chemical composition, microbial load, and consumer sensory acceptability. Blanching of pepper in 2% NaCl solution followed by drying in a natural convection solar dryer reduced drying time by 15 hours. Similarly, a combination of blanching and drying in the solar dryer improved microbial quality of dried pepper. However, blanching and drying processes resulted in reduction in nutrients such as vitamin C and minerals content of pepper. Blanching followed by drying in natural convection solar dryer had the highest consumer acceptability scores for colour and overall acceptability, while texture and aroma were not significantly () affected by the different treatments. Therefore, natural convection solar dryer can be used to dry pepper with acceptable microbial and sensory qualities, as an alternative to open-sun drying. James Owusu-Kwarteng, Francis K. K. Kori, and Fortune Akabanda Copyright © 2017 James Owusu-Kwarteng et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Partial Least Square Regression and Spectral Data in UV-Visible Region for Quantification of Adulteration in Indonesian Palm Civet Coffee Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Asian palm civet coffee or kopi luwak (Indonesian words for coffee and palm civet) is well known as the world’s priciest and rarest coffee. To protect the authenticity of luwak coffee and protect consumer from luwak coffee adulteration, it is very important to develop a robust and simple method for determining the adulteration of luwak coffee. In this research, the use of UV-Visible spectra combined with PLSR was evaluated to establish rapid and simple methods for quantification of adulteration in luwak-arabica coffee blend. Several preprocessing methods were tested and the results show that most of the preprocessing spectra were effective in improving the quality of calibration models with the best PLS calibration model selected for Savitzky-Golay smoothing spectra which had the lowest RMSECV (0.039) and highest value (4.64). Using this PLS model, a prediction for quantification of luwak content was calculated and resulted in satisfactory prediction performance with high both and RER values. Diding Suhandy and Meinilwita Yulia Copyright © 2017 Diding Suhandy and Meinilwita Yulia. All rights reserved. The Bacteriological Quality, Safety, and Antibiogram of Salmonella Isolates from Fresh Meat in Retail Shops of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The habit of raw meat consumption in addition to the poor hygienic standards and lack of knowledge contribute to food-borne diseases outbreaks. The objective of this research was to assess the bacterial quality and safety of fresh meat from retail Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A total of 30 fresh meat samples were collected from butcher shops. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and enumerate bacteria. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella isolates. The mean counts of AMB, TC, and S. aureus were log104.53, 3.97, and 3.88 log10cfu/g, respectively. Salmonella was isolated from 21 (70%) of the samples. Salmonella isolates in this study were highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, and norfloxacin while they were resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline. High rate of multiple drug resistance was also noticed in Salmonella isolates. The microbial loads of meat were above the recommended microbial safety limits. Besides this, the isolation rate of Salmonella was high and high levels of drug resistance were documented for Salmonella isolates. Measures on handling and appropriate personal hygiene practices of workers in the retail shops are recommended to reduce the change of forborne disease outbreaks. Melkamnesh Azage and Mulugeta Kibret Copyright © 2017 Melkamnesh Azage and Mulugeta Kibret. All rights reserved. Underwater Shockwave Pretreatment Process to Improve the Scent of Extracted Citrus junos Tanaka (Yuzu) Juice Thu, 06 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) has a strong characteristic aroma and thus its juice is used in various Japanese foods. Herein, we evaluate the volatile compounds in yuzu juice to investigate whether underwater shockwave pretreatment affects its scent. A shockwave pretreatment at increased discharge and energy of 3.5 kV and 4.9 kJ, respectively, increased the content of aroma-active compounds. Moreover, the underwater shockwave pretreatment afforded an approximate tenfold increase in the scent intensity of yuzu juice cultivated in Rikuzentakata. The proposed treatment method exhibited reliable and good performance for the extraction of volatile and aroma-active compounds from the yuzu fruit. The broad applicability and high reliability of this technique for improving the scent of yuzu fruit juice were demonstrated, confirming its potential for application to a wide range of food extraction processes. Eisuke Kuraya, Akiko Touyama, Shina Nakada, Osamu Higa, and Shigeru Itoh Copyright © 2017 Eisuke Kuraya et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant Properties of “Natchez” and “Triple Crown” Blackberries Using Korean Traditional Winemaking Techniques Wed, 21 Jun 2017 06:42:42 +0000 This research evaluated blackberries grown in Oklahoma and wines produced using a modified traditional Korean technique employing relatively oxygen-permeable earthenware fermentation vessels. The fermentation variables were temperature (21.6°C versus 26.6°C) and yeast inoculation versus wild fermentation. Wild fermented wines had higher total phenolic concentration than yeast fermented wines. Overall, wines had a relatively high concentration of anthocyanin (85–320 mg L−1 malvidin-3-monoglucoside) and antioxidant capacity (9776–37845 µmol Trolox equivalent g−1). “Natchez” berries had a higher anthocyanin concentration than “Triple Crown” berries. Higher fermentation temperature at the start of the winemaking process followed by the use of lower fermentation/storage temperature for aging wine samples maximized phenolic compound extraction/retention. The Korean winemaking technique used in this study produced blackberry wines that were excellent sources of polyphenolic compounds as well as being high in antioxidant capacity as measured by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) test. Youri Joh, Niels Maness, and William McGlynn Copyright © 2017 Youri Joh et al. All rights reserved. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Study the Effects of Brisket Fat, Soy Protein Isolate, and Cornstarch on Nutritional and Textural Properties of Rabbit Sausages Mon, 19 Jun 2017 08:08:18 +0000 The effects of brisket fat, soy protein isolate, and cornstarch on chemical and textural properties of rabbit sausages were studied using surface response methodology. Sausage samples were prepared using a five-level three-variable Central Composite Rotatable Design with 16 combinations, including two replicates of the center point, carried out in random order. The level of brisket fat (BF), soy protein isolate (SPI), and cornstarch (CS) in the sausage formulation ranged within 8.3–16.7%, 0.7–2.3%, and 1.3–4.7%, respectively. Increasing BF decreased moisture and ash contents but increased protein and fat contents of the sausages (). Increasing SPI increased moisture content but decreased ash and carbohydrate contents of the sausages (). Increasing CS increased carbohydrate content (). Increasing BF increased hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and chewiness but decreased springiness (). SPI addition increased springiness but decreased adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and chewiness (). In conclusion, varying the levels of BF and SPI had a more significant effect on chemical and textural properties of rabbit sausages than CS. Joseph M. Wambui, Edward G. Karuri, and Margaret M. M. Wanyoike Copyright © 2017 Joseph M. Wambui et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Chitosan Edible Coating on the Biochemical and Physical Characteristics of Carp Fillet (Cyprinus carpio) Stored at −18°C Sun, 28 May 2017 07:14:00 +0000 The effect of an edible coating (EC) with 1.5% chitosan as an additive, on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillet, was determined evaluating the biochemical, physicochemical, textural, microbiological, and nutritional characteristics periodically during its storage in the freezer (−18°C), observing a decrease in the rate of biochemical reactions related to degradation (), hydroperoxides content (HPC) (0.8324 nM hydroperoxides/mg of protein versus 0.5540 nM/mg with regard to the EC sample), as well as protein carbonyl content (PCC) (0.5860 nM versus 0.4743 nM of reactive carbonyl groups/mg of protein of noncoated material), keeping properties for a longer period of time, and a lower protein solubility (7.8 mg of supernatant protein/mg of total protein versus 6.8 mg/mg) and less loss of moisture (8% less, with regard to EC); for the nutritional characteristics of the fillet, lysine is the limiting aminoacid in the sample without EC, while leucine is the limiting aminoacid for the EC sample. According to microbial growth, the count was 2.2 × 105 CFU/g of sample in mesophiles versus 4.7 × 104 in the EC sample. The results indicate that the use of EC added with chitosan maintains the quality of the product regarding lipid and protein oxidation until fourth month of storage, maintaining moisture content without variation for at least 3 months, and inhibits microbial growth up to 2 logarithmic units, during five months of frozen storage. Ana Gabriela Morachis-Valdez, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Imelda García-Argueta, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro, Daniel Díaz-Bandera, and Octavio Dublán-García Copyright © 2017 Ana Gabriela Morachis-Valdez et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of a Commercial Lactic Acid Bacteria Intervention Applied to Inhibit Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli on Refrigerated Vacuum-Aged Beef Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Because of their antagonistic activity towards pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, some members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been evaluated for use as food biopreservatives. The objectives of this study were to assess the antimicrobial utility of a commercial LAB intervention against O157 and non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) on intact beef strip loins during refrigerated vacuum aging and determine intervention efficacy as a function of mode of intervention application. Prerigor strip loins were inoculated with a cocktail ( log10 CFU/ml) of rifampicin-resistant (100.0 μg/ml; ) O157 and non-O157 STEC. Inoculated loins were chilled to ≤4°C and treated with  log10 CFU/ml LAB intervention using either a pressurized tank air sprayer (conventional application) or air-assisted electrostatic sprayer (ESS). Surviving STEC were enumerated on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 100.0 μg/ml rifampicin (TSAR) to determine STEC inhibition as a function of intervention application method (conventional, ESS) and refrigerated aging period (14, 28 days). Intervention application reduced STEC by 0.4 log10 CFU/cm2 (), although application method did not impact STEC reductions (). Data indicate that the LAB biopreservative may assist beef safety protection when utilized within a multi-intervention beef harvest, fabrication, and aging process. Katie R. Kirsch, Tamra N. Tolen, Jessica C. Hudson, Alejandro Castillo, Davey Griffin, and T. Matthew Taylor Copyright © 2017 Katie R. Kirsch et al. All rights reserved. Protein and Metalloprotein Distribution in Different Varieties of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Effects of Cooking Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:08:25 +0000 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are among the main sources of protein and minerals. The cooking of the grains is imperative, due to reduction of the effect of some toxic and antinutritional substances, as well as increase of protein digestibility. In this study, the effects of cooking on albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins concentration and determination of Fe associated with proteins for different beans varieties and on phaseolin concentration in common and black beans were evaluated. Different extractant solutions (water, NaCl, ethanol, and NaOH) were used for extracting albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins, respectively. For the phaseolin separation NaOH, HCl, and NaCl were used. The total concentration of proteins was determined by Bradford method; Cu and Fe associated with phaseolin and other proteins were obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Cooking promoted a negative effect on (1) the proteins concentrations (17 (glutelin) to 95 (albumin) %) of common beans and (2) phaseolin concentration (90%) for common and black beans. Fe associated with albumin, prolamin, and glutelin was not altered. In Fe and Cu associated with phaseolin there was an increase of 20 and 37% for the common and black varieties, respectively. Aline P. Oliveira, Geyssa Ferreira Andrade, Bianca S. O. Mateó, and Juliana Naozuka Copyright © 2017 Aline P. Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. The Effectiveness of Various Salacca Vinegars as Therapeutic Agent for Management of Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia on Diabetic Rats Tue, 14 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of this study was to explore the potency of salacca vinegar made from various Indonesian salacca fruit extracts as therapeutic agent for hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia for STZ-induced diabetic rats. The rats were grouped into untreated rats, STZ-induced diabetic rats without treatment, and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with Pondoh salacca vinegar, Swaru salacca vinegar, Gula Pasir salacca vinegar, Madu salacca vinegar, or Madura salacca vinegar. Parameter observed included blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and pancreas histopathology of the samples. The results demonstrated that all salacca vinegars were capable of reducing blood sugar (from 25.1 to 62%) and reducing LDL (from 9.5 to 14.8 mg/dL), TG (from 58.3 to 69.5 mg/dL), MDA (from 1.1 to 2.2 mg/dL), and TC (from 56.3 to 70.5 mg/dL) as well as increasing HDL blood sugar of STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats (from 52.3 to 60 mg/dL). Various salacca vinegars were also capable of regenerating pancreatic cells. Nevertheless, the ability of Swaru salacca vinegar to manage hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia appeared to be superior to other salacca vinegars. Swaru salacca vinegar is a potential therapeutic agent to manage hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Elok Zubaidah, Widya Dwi Rukmi Putri, Tiara Puspitasari, Umi Kalsum, and Dianawati Dianawati Copyright © 2017 Elok Zubaidah et al. All rights reserved. A Note on Fatty Acids Profile of Meat from Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Inorganic or Organic Selenium Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This investigation evaluated, in broiler chickens Pectoralis and Gastrocnemius muscles, the effect of the dietary supplementation with sodium selenite (0.3 ppm) versus selenomethionine (0.3 ppm), on the fatty acids composition, lipids indices, and enzymes indexes for desaturase, elongase, and thioesterase. The selenium reduced, in both muscles, the content of atherogenic fatty acids, C14:0 and C16:0, while it increased the C18:1 level. On the other hand, selenium increased, in both muscles, the content of C18:3n3 and EPA, but not DPA and DHA. No selenium effect was detected for PUFA/SFA, n-6, n-3, n-6/n-3, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. As for the enzyme indexes, a selenium effect is only detected for thioesterase. Taken together, the results highlight the potential effect of dietary selenium, mainly selenomethionine, in the modulation of the composition of fatty acids in chicken meat, in particular, reducing the content of atherogenic fatty acids and increasing the health promoting n-3 PUFA. Marta del Puerto, M. Cristina Cabrera, and Ali Saadoun Copyright © 2017 Marta del Puerto et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Processing Methods on Proximate Composition and Dieting of Two Amaranthus Species from West Cameroon Sun, 18 Dec 2016 13:34:50 +0000 The effects of various processing methods on the proximate composition and dieting of Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus cruentus from West Cameroon were investigated in this study. Both amaranths leaves were subjected to same treatments (sun-dried and unsliced, sliced and cooked), milled, and analysed for their mineral and proximate composition. Thirty-Six Wistar albino rats of 21 to 24 days old were distributed in six groups and fed for 14 days with 10% protein based diets named D0 (protein-free diet), DI (egg white as reference protein), DII (sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus), DIII (cooked and sliced A. hybridus), DIV (sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus), and DV (cooked and sliced A. cruentus). The protein bioavailability and haematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in rats. The results showed that K, P, Mg, Zn, and Fe had the higher content in both samples regardless of processing method. The sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus contained the highest value of crude protein 32.22 g/100 g DM (dry matter) while the highest crude lipid, 3.80 and 2.58%, was observed, respectively, in sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus and cooked and sliced A. cruentus. Cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus contained high crude fiber of 14 and 12.18%, respectively. Rats fed with diet DIII revealed the best protein bioavailability and haematological parameters whereas 100% mortality rate was recorded with group fed with diet DIV. From this study, it is evident that cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus could play a role in weight reduction regimes. Arnaud Landry Suffo Kamela, Raymond Simplice Mouokeu, Rawson Ashish, Ghislain Maffo Tazoho, Lamye Glory Moh, Etienne Pamo Tedonkeng, and Jules-Roger Kuiate Copyright © 2016 Arnaud Landry Suffo Kamela et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Bioactive Properties of Aerial Parts of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn.) Tue, 22 Nov 2016 08:16:04 +0000 The present investigation was carried out to determine the nutritional and functional properties of T. cucumerina. Water extracts of freeze dried flowers, fruits, and leaves of T. cucumerina were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, α-amylase inhibitory activity, and fiber and mineral contents. Antioxidant activity, TPC, and TFC were significantly higher () in leaves than in flowers and fruits. A significant linear correlation was observed between the TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities of plant extracts. Although, leaves and flower samples showed a significantly higher () amylase inhibitory activity than the fruit samples, the overall amylase inhibition was low in all three parts of T. cucumerina. Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents were significantly higher () in fruits than in flowers and leaves. Ca and K contents were significantly higher () in leaf followed by fruit and flower and Mg, Fe, and Zn contents were significantly higher () in leaves followed by flowers and fruits. In conclusion, T. cucumerina can be considered as a nourishing food commodity which possesses high nutritional and functional benefits for human health. Ruvini Liyanage, Harshani Nadeeshani, Chathuni Jayathilake, Rizliya Visvanathan, and Swarna Wimalasiri Copyright © 2016 Ruvini Liyanage et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Water Activity and Packaging Material on the Quality of Dehydrated Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) Slices during Accelerated Storage Mon, 07 Nov 2016 12:19:03 +0000 The quality of dehydrated taro slices in accelerated storage (45∘C and 75% RH) was determined as a function of initial water activity () and package type. Color, rehydration capacity, thiamin content, and α-tocopherol content were monitored during 34 weeks of storage in polyethylene and foil laminate packaging at initial storage of 0.35 to 0.71. Initial at or below 0.54 resulted in less browning and higher rehydration capacity, but not in significantly higher α-tocopherol retention. Foil laminate pouches resulted in a higher rehydration capacity and increased thiamin retention compared to polyethylene bags. Type of packaging had no effect on the color of the samples. Product stability was highest when stored in foil laminate pouches at 0.4. Sensory panels were held to determine the acceptability of rehydrated taro slices using samples representative of the taro used in the analytical tests. A hedonic test on rehydrated taro’s acceptability was conducted in Fiji, with panelists rating the product an average of on a discrete 9-point scale. Using a modified Weibull analysis (with 50% probability of product failure), it was determined that the shelf life of dehydrated taro stored at 45∘C was 38.3 weeks. A. R. Sloan, M. L. Dunn, L. K. Jefferies, O. A. Pike, Sarah E. Nielsen Barrows, and F. M. Steele Copyright © 2016 A. R. Sloan et al. All rights reserved. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy Wed, 26 Oct 2016 06:35:53 +0000 In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices. Purabi R. Ghosh, Derek Fawcett, Shashi B. Sharma, and Gerrard Eddy Jai Poinern Copyright © 2016 Purabi R. Ghosh et al. All rights reserved. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments Thu, 20 Oct 2016 11:43:26 +0000 Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm3. The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%), Bacillus (11.1%), Micrococcus (10.6%), Streptococcus (7.8%), and Lactobacillus (6%) excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9%) and Gram negative rods (9.9%). The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds) reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended. Tesfaye Wolde and Ketema Bacha Copyright © 2016 Tesfaye Wolde and Ketema Bacha. All rights reserved. Brilliant Blue Dyes in Daily Food: How Could Purinergic System Be Affected? Wed, 19 Oct 2016 07:25:59 +0000 Dyes were first obtained from the extraction of plant sources in the Neolithic period to produce dyed clothes. At the beginning of the 19th century, synthetic dyes were produced to color clothes on a large scale. Other applications for synthetic dyes include the pharmaceutical and food industries, which are important interference factors in our lives and health. Herein, we analyzed the possible implications of some dyes that are already described as antagonists of purinergic receptors, including special Brilliant Blue G and its derivative FD&C Blue No. 1. Purinergic receptor family is widely expressed in the body and is critical to relate to much cellular homeostasis maintenance as well as inflammation and cell death. In this review, we discuss previous studies and show purinergic signaling as an important issue to be aware of in food additives development and their correlations with the physiological functions. Leonardo Gomes Braga Ferreira, Robson Xavier Faria, Natiele Carla da Silva Ferreira, and Rômulo José Soares-Bezerra Copyright © 2016 Leonardo Gomes Braga Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish Thu, 11 Aug 2016 11:36:29 +0000 A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. M. A. Valdivia-López, A. Tecante, S. Granados-Navarrete, and C. Martínez-García Copyright © 2016 M. A. Valdivia-López et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Variation of Flavonols Quercetin, Myricetin, and Kaempferol in the Sri Lankan Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and Their Health-Promoting Aspects Mon, 06 Jun 2016 11:54:08 +0000 Flavonol glycosides in tea leaves have been quantified as aglycones, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. Occurrence of the said compounds was reported in fruits and vegetable for a long time in association with the antioxidant potential. However, data on flavonols in tea were scanty and, hence, this study aims to envisage the flavonol content in a representative pool of accessions present in the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. Significant amounts of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol have been detected in the beverage type tea accessions of the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. This study also revealed that tea is a good source of flavonol glycosides. The Camellia sinensis var. sinensis showed higher content of myricetin, quercetin, and total flavonols than var. assamica and ssp. lasiocalyx. Therefore flavonols and their glycosides can potentially be used in chemotaxonomic studies of tea germplasm. The nonbeverage type cultivars, especially Camellia rosaflora and Camellia japonica Red along with the exotic accessions resembling China type, could be useful in future germplasm studies because they are rich sources of flavonols, namely, quercetin and kaempferol, which are potent antioxidants. The flavonol profiles can be effectively used in choosing parents in tea breeding programmes to generate progenies with a wide range of flavonol glycosides. Brasathe Jeganathan, P. A. Nimal Punyasiri, J. Dananjaya Kottawa-Arachchi, Mahasen A. B. Ranatunga, I. Sarath B. Abeysinghe, M. T. Kumudini Gunasekare, and B. M. Ratnayake Bandara Copyright © 2016 Brasathe Jeganathan et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia Mon, 16 May 2016 07:43:11 +0000 Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 ()], mother’s educational status [AOR = 2.34 ()], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 ()], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 ()] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 ()] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 ()] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. Tsgehana Gebregyorgis, Takele Tadesse, and Azeb Atenafu Copyright © 2016 Tsgehana Gebregyorgis et al. All rights reserved. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits Sun, 03 Apr 2016 13:29:35 +0000 Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects. Many starchy tuber crops, except the common potatoes, sweet potatoes, and cassava, are not yet fully explored for their nutritional and health benefits. In Asian countries, some edible tubers are also used as traditional medicinal. A variety of foods can be prepared using tubers and they may also be used in industrial applications. Processing may affect the bioactivities of constituent compounds. Tubers have an immense potential as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness. Anoma Chandrasekara and Thamilini Josheph Kumar Copyright © 2016 Anoma Chandrasekara and Thamilini Josheph Kumar. All rights reserved. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin Wed, 16 Mar 2016 08:18:57 +0000 A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. Séraphin C. Atidégla, Joël Huat, Euloge K. Agbossou, Hervé Saint-Macary, and Romain Glèlè Kakai Copyright © 2016 Séraphin C. Atidégla et al. All rights reserved. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques Sun, 13 Mar 2016 07:52:13 +0000 The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker () than the air-oven-dried (). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly () higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. P. T. Akonor, H. Ofori, N. T. Dziedzoave, and N. K. Kortei Copyright © 2016 P. T. Akonor et al. All rights reserved. Microbiological Quality Assessment of Frozen Fish and Fish Processing Materials from Bangladesh Thu, 25 Feb 2016 07:14:53 +0000 The present study aims at the microbiological analysis of export oriented frozen fishes, namely, Jew fish, Tongue Sole fish, Cuttle fish, Ribbon fish, Queen fish, and fish processing water and ice from a view of public health safety and international trade. Microbiological analysis includes the determination of total viable aerobic count by standard plate count method and enumeration of total coliforms and fecal coliforms by most probable number method. The presence of specific fish pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae were also investigated. The TVAC of all the samples was estimated below  cfu/g whereas the total coliforms and fecal coliforms count were found below 100 MPN/g and 10 MPN/g, respectively, which meet the acceptable limit specified by International Commission of Microbiological Specification for Food. The microbiological analysis of water and ice also complies with the specifications having  cfu/mL, and total coliforms and fecal coliforms count were below the limit detection of the MPN method. Specific fish pathogens such as Salmonella sp. and V. cholerae were found absent in all the samples under the investigation. From this study, it can be concluded that the investigated frozen fishes were eligible for export purpose and also safe for human consumption. Sohana Al Sanjee and Md. Ekramul Karim Copyright © 2016 Sohana Al Sanjee and Md. Ekramul Karim. All rights reserved. The Content and Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients of Selected Wild and Traditional Edible Plants as Affected by Household Preparation Methods Practiced by Local Community in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia Thu, 11 Feb 2016 11:42:40 +0000 Edible parts of some wild and traditional vegetables used by the Gumuz community, namely, Portulaca quadrifida, Dioscorea abyssinica, Abelmoschus esculentus, and Oxytenanthera abyssinica, were evaluated for their minerals composition and bioavailability. Mineral elements, namely, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu, were analyzed using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Effects of household processing practices on the levels of mineral elements were evaluated and the bioavailability was predicted using antinutrient-mineral molar ratios. Fe, Zn, Ca, Cu, P, Na, and K level in raw edible portions ranged in (0.64 ± 0.02–27.0 ± 6.24), (0.46 ± 0.02–0.85 ± 0.02), (24.49 ± 1.2–131.7 ± 8.3), (0.11 ± 0.01–0.46 ± 0.04), (39.13 ± 0.34–57.27 ± 0.94), (7.34 ± 0.42–20.42 ± 1.31), and (184.4 ± 1.31–816.3 ± 11.731) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Although statistically significant losses in minerals as a result of household preparation practices were observed, the amount of nutrients retained could be valuable especially in communities that have limited alternative sources of these micronutrients. The predicted minerals’ bioavailability shows adequacy in terms of calcium and zinc but not iron. Andinet Abera Hailu and Getachew Addis Copyright © 2016 Andinet Abera Hailu and Getachew Addis. All rights reserved. Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Principles and Potentials for Sub-Saharan Africa Wed, 06 Jan 2016 08:35:34 +0000 Heat pump technology has been used for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world including South Africa. However, heat pump drying (HPD) of fruits and vegetables has been largely unexploited in South Africa and by extension to the sub-Saharan African region. Although studies on heat pump drying started in South Africa several years ago, not much progress has been recorded to date. Many potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when compared with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, various methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Necessary factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were identified. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically in sub-Saharan Africa was clarified. Folasayo Fayose and Zhongjie Huan Copyright © 2016 Folasayo Fayose and Zhongjie Huan. All rights reserved. Kinetics and Quality of Microwave-Assisted Drying of Mango (Mangifera indica) Sun, 03 Jan 2016 13:23:00 +0000 The effect of microwave-assisted convective air-drying on the drying kinetics and quality of mango was evaluated. Both microwave power and pretreatment time were significant factors but the effect of power was more profound. Increase in microwave power and pretreatment time had a positive effect on drying time. The nonenzymatic browning index of the fresh samples increased from 0.29 to 0.60 while the ascorbic acid content decreased with increase in microwave power and time from 3.84 mg/100g to 1.67 mg/100g. The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 1.45 × 10−9 to 2.13 × 10−9 m2/s for microwave power range of 300-600 W for 2 to 4 minutes of pretreatment. The Arrhenius type power-dependent activation energy was found to be in the range of 8.58–17.48 W/mm. The fitting of commonly used drying models to the drying data showed the Midilli et al. model as the best. Microwave power of 300 W and pretreatment time of 4 minutes emerged as the optimum conditions prior to air-drying at 7°C. At this ideal condition, the energy savings as a result of microwave application was approximately 30%. Therefore, microwave-assisted drying should be considered for improved heat and mass transfer processes during drying to produce dried mangoes with better quality. Ernest Ekow Abano Copyright © 2016 Ernest Ekow Abano. All rights reserved. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods Thu, 10 Dec 2015 08:16:19 +0000 Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH) as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from to  μg/g dry weight (DW), with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from  μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to  μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (). The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods. Petro E. Mabeyo, Mkabwa L. K. Manoko, Amra Gruhonjic, Paul A. Fitzpatrick, Göran Landberg, Máté Erdélyi, and Stephen S. Nyandoro Copyright © 2015 Petro E. Mabeyo et al. All rights reserved.