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Comparative and Functional Genomics
Volume 2009, Article ID 406421, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/406421
Research Article

An Exon-Based Comparative Variant Analysis Pipeline to Study the Scale and Role of Frameshift and Nonsense Mutation in the Human-Chimpanzee Divergence

Department of Biological Science and Department of Computer Science, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, USA

Received 31 May 2009; Revised 14 July 2009; Accepted 18 July 2009

Academic Editor: Antoine Danchin

Copyright © 2009 GongXin Yu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chimpanzees and humans are closely related but differ in many deadly human diseases and other characteristics in physiology, anatomy, and pathology. In spite of decades of extensive research, crucial questions about the molecular mechanisms behind the differences are yet to be understood. Here I report ExonVar, a novel computational pipeline for Exon-based human-chimpanzee comparative Variant analysis. The objective is to comparatively analyze mutations specifically those that caused the frameshift and nonsense mutations and to assess their scale and potential impacts on human-chimpanzee divergence. Genomewide analysis of human and chimpanzee exons with ExonVar identified a number of species-specific, exon-disrupting mutations in chimpanzees but much fewer in humans. Many were found on genes involved in important biological processes such as T cell lineage development, the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, and antigen induced cell death. A “less-is-more” model was previously established to illustrate the role of the gene inactivation and disruptions during human evolution. Here this analysis suggested a different model where the chimpanzee-specific exon-disrupting mutations may act as additional evolutionary force that drove the human-chimpanzee divergence. Finally, the analysis revealed a number of sequencing errors in the chimpanzee and human genome sequences and further illustrated that they could be corrected without resequencing.