- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Comparative and Functional Genomics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 947089, 7 pages
Transposable Elements Are a Significant Contributor to Tandem Repeats in the Human Genome
Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2S 3A1
Received 25 February 2012; Revised 10 April 2012; Accepted 11 April 2012
Academic Editor: Yasunori Aizawa
Copyright © 2012 Musaddeque Ahmed and Ping Liang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- B. Charlesworth, “Genetic recombination: patterns in the genome,” Current Biology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 182–184, 1994.
- A. J. Jeffreys, V. Wilson, and S. L. Thein, “Individual-specific “fingerprints” of human DNA,” Nature, vol. 316, no. 6023, pp. 76–79, 1985.
- K. Tamaki, X. L. Huang, T. Yamamoto, R. Uchihi, H. Nozawa, and Y. Katsumata, “Applications of minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) mapping for maternal identification from remains of an infant and placenta,” Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 695–700, 1995.
- N. K. Spurr, S. P. Bryant, J. Attwood et al., “European Gene Mapping Project (EUROGEM): genetic maps based on the CEPH reference families,” European Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 193–252, 1994.
- A. J. Jeffreys and S. D. Pena, “Brief introduction to human DNA fingerprinting,” Experientia, vol. 67, pp. 1–20, 1993.
- J. A. L. Armour, T. Anttinen, C. A. May et al., “Minisatellite diversity supports a recent African origin for modern humans,” Nature Genetics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 154–160, 1996.
- P. Bois and A. J. Jeffreys, “Minisatellite instability and germline mutation,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1636–1648, 1999.
- G. R. Sutherland, E. Baker, and R. I. Richards, “Fragile sites still breaking,” Trends in Genetics, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 501–506, 1998.
- G. Levinson and G. A. Gutman, “Slipped-strand mispairing: a major mechanism for DNA sequence evolution,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 203–221, 1987.
- P. R. J. Bois, “Hypermutable minisatellites, a human affair?” Genomics, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 349–355, 2003.
- J. Murray, J. Buard, D. L. Neil et al., “Comparative sequence analysis of human minisatellites showing meiotic repeat instability,” Genome Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 130–136, 1999.
- G. F. Richard and F. Pâques, “Mini- and microsatellite expansions: the recombination connection,” EMBO Reports, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 122–126, 2000.
- A. J. Jeffreys, K. Tamaki, A. MacLeod, D. G. Monckton, D. L. Neil, and J. A. L. Armour, “Complex gene conversion events in germline mutation at human minisatellites,” Nature Genetics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 136–145, 1994.
- J. S. Taylor and F. Breden, “Slipped-strand mispairing at noncontiguous repeats in Poecilia reticulata: a model for minisatellite birth,” Genetics, vol. 155, no. 3, pp. 1313–1320, 2000.
- J. E. Haber and E. J. Louis, “Minisatellite origins in yeast and humans,” Genomics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 132–135, 1998.
- R. E. Mills, E. A. Bennett, R. C. Iskow, and S. E. Devine, “Which transposable elements are active in the human genome?” Trends in Genetics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 183–191, 2007.
- D. J. Hedges, P. A. Callinan, R. Cordaux, J. Xing, E. Barnes, and M. A. Batzer, “Differential Alu mobilization and polymorphism among the human and chimpanzee lineages,” Genome Research, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1068–1075, 2004.
- R. E. Mills, E. A. Bennett, R. C. Iskow et al., “Recently mobilized transposons in the human and chimpanzee genomes,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 671–679, 2006.
- H. Watanabe, A. Fujiyama, M. Hattori, T. Taylor, A. Toyoda, and Y. Kuroki, “DNA sequence and comparative analysis of chimpanzee chromosome 22,” Nature, vol. 429, no. 6990, pp. 382–388, 2004.
- J. Wang, L. Song, M. K. Gonder et al., “Whole genome computational comparative genomics: a fruitful approach for ascertaining Alu insertion polymorphisms,” Gene, vol. 365, no. 1-2, pp. 11–20, 2006.
- J. Jurka and A. J. Gentles, “Origin and diversification of minisatellites derived from human Alu sequences,” Gene, vol. 365, no. 1-2, pp. 21–26, 2006.
- D. Ames, N. Murphy, T. Helentjaris, N. Sun, and V. Chandler, “Comparative analyses of human single- and multilocus tandem repeats,” Genetics, vol. 179, no. 3, pp. 1693–1704, 2008.
- Y. Gelfand, A. Rodriguez, and G. Benson, “TRDB—the tandem repeats database,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. D80–D87, 2007.
- J. Jurka, V. V. Kapitonov, A. Pavlicek, P. Klonowski, O. Kohany, and J. Walichiewicz, “Repbase Update, a database of eukaryotic repetitive elements,” Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol. 110, no. 1–4, pp. 462–467, 2005.
- R. Chenna, H. Sugawara, T. Koike et al., “Multiple sequence alignment with the Clustal series of programs,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 31, no. 13, pp. 3497–3500, 2003.
- V. Kapitonov and J. Jurka, “The age of Alu subfamilies,” Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 59–65, 1996.
- G. Churakov, N. Grundmann, A. Kuritzin, J. Brosius, W. Makaowski, and J. Schmitz, “A novel web-based TinT application and the chronology of the Primate Alu retroposon activity,” BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 10, no. 1, article 376, 2010.
- S. Nishizawa, T. Kubo, and T. Mikami, “Variable number of tandem repeat loci in the mitochondrial genomes of beets,” Current Genetics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 2000.
- M. Babcock, A. Pavlicek, E. Spiteri et al., “Shuffling of genes within low-copy repeats on 22q11 (LCR22) by Alu-mediated recombination events during evolution,” Genome Research, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 2519–2532, 2003.
- A. J. Gentles, O. Kohany, and J. Jurka, “Evolutionary diversity and potential recombinogenic role of integration targets of non-LTR retrotransposons,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1983–1991, 2005.
- J. Jurka, P. Klonowski, and E. N. Trifonov, “Mammalian retroposons integrate at kinkable DNA sites,” Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 717–721, 1998.
- T. D. Mashkova, N. Y. Oparina, M. H. Lacroix et al., “Structural rearrangements and insertions of dispersed elements in pericentromeric alpha satellites occur preferably at kinkable DNA sites,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 305, no. 1, pp. 33–48, 2001.