Table 2: Examples of relief from miRNA-mediated downregulation.

miRNATarget mRNAExpression regulationReference

miR-122CAT-1In response to amino acid starvation, HuR binding to 3′UTR interferes with miRNP association with CAT-1 mRNA and results in relocalization of mRNP from P bodies in the cytoplasm to polysomes.[105, 110]
miR-134LIMK1In response to extracellular stimuli, HuR binds to LIMK1 mRNA in the dendritic spines and alleviates miRNA-mediated repression.[166, 167]
miR-19RhoBThe loss of the interdependent binding between HuR and miR-19 to the RhoB mRNA upon UV exposure relieves this mRNA from miR-19-dependent inhibition of translation.[168]
miR-548c-3pTOP2AHuR enhances TOP2A translation by antagonizing with miR-548c-3p. Their combined actions control TOP2A expression levels and determine the effectiveness of doxorubicin.[169]
miR-430Nanos1 and TDRD7DND1 prevents miRNA-mediated downregulation in primordial germ cells by blocking miRNP access to 3′UTR of target mRNAs.[154]
miR-221 and miR-222P27KIP1In arrested cells, Pum1 is unable to bind to 3′UTR of target mRNA and cannot open its loop structure and therefore restricts miRNA binding.[154]
miR-19b PTENPTEN1 (a pseudogene) acts as a decoy factor for miRNAs and derepresses PTENs expression.[170]
miR-20aKRASKRAS1P sequesters miRNA and promotes expression of KRAS.[170]
miR-166/165Homeodomain leucine zipper transcript factorAGO10 acts as a sponge to decoy away miRNAs from AGO1 bearing miRNPs.[164]
miR-184 and let-7LRRK2Gain of function mutation in LRRK2 makes it more associable to dAGO1 and LRRK2 kinase which phosphorylates 4E-BP1 and consequently associates with hAGO2 which counteracts with miRNA mediated repression. [171, 172]
miR-26a/bIL-63′-end uridylation of miRNAs relieves their miRNA-mediated repression and promotes IL-6 expression.[173]
miR-485-5pBACE1BACE1-AS (a lncRNA) binds to BACE1 mRNA in its seed site and prevents miRNP binding to their target mRNAs.[158]
miR-145OCT4, SOX2, and NANOGIn the presence of Linc-ROR (a lncRNA), miR-145 is trapped and consequently decoyed away from its target mRNAs.[159162]