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International Journal of Geophysics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 514242, 23 pages
Research Article

Experimental Validation of the Electrokinetic Theory and Development of Seismoelectric Interferometry by Cross-Correlation

1Department of Geotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands
2BP, BP Sunbury Business Park, Building H, Sunbury on Thames, Middlesex TW16 7LN, UK
3Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, 397 Panama Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-2115, USA
4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Received 29 June 2011; Revised 30 November 2011; Accepted 10 February 2012

Academic Editor: Laurence Jouniaux

Copyright © 2012 F. C. Schoemaker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We experimentally validate a relatively recent electrokinetic formulation of the streaming potential (SP) coefficient as developed by Pride (1994). The start of our investigation focuses on the streaming potential coefficient, which gives rise to the coupling of mechanical and electromagnetic fields. It is found that the theoretical amplitude values of this dynamic SP coefficient are in good agreement with the normalized experimental results over a wide frequency range, assuming no frequency dependence of the bulk conductivity. By adopting the full set of electrokinetic equations, a full-waveform wave propagation model is formulated. We compare the model predictions, neglecting the interface response and modeling only the coseismic fields, with laboratory measurements of a seismic wave of frequency 500 kHz that generates electromagnetic signals. Agreement is observed between measurement and electrokinetic theory regarding the coseismic electric field. The governing equations are subsequently adopted to study the applicability of seismoelectric interferometry. It is shown that seismic sources at a single boundary location are sufficient to retrieve the 1D seismoelectric responses, both for the coseismic and interface components, in a layered model.