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International Journal of Geophysics
Volume 2012, Article ID 726408, 17 pages
Research Article

An Experimental and Modeling Study on the Response to Varying Pore Pressure and Reservoir Fluids in the Morrow A Sandstone

Department of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401, USA

Received 9 August 2011; Accepted 29 September 2011

Academic Editor: Marek Grad

Copyright © 2012 Aaron V. Wandler et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In mature oil fields undergoing enhanced oil recovery methods, such as CO2 injection, monitoring the reservoir changes becomes important. To understand how reservoir changes influence compressional wave (P) and shear wave (S) velocities, we conducted laboratory core experiments on five core samples taken from the Morrow A sandstone at Postle Field, Oklahoma. The laboratory experiments measured P- and S-wave velocities as a function of confining pressure, pore pressure, and fluid type (which included CO2 in the gas and supercritical phase). P-wave velocity shows a response that is sensitive to both pore pressure and fluid saturation. However, S-wave velocity is primarily sensitive to changes in pore pressure. We use the fluid and pore pressure response measured from the core samples to modify velocity well logs through a log facies model correlation. The modified well logs simulate the brine- and CO2-saturated cases at minimum and maximum reservoir pressure and are inputs for full waveform seismic modeling. Modeling shows how P- and S-waves have a different time-lapse amplitude response with offset. The results from the laboratory experiments and modeling show the advantages of combining P- and S-wave attributes in recognizing the mechanism responsible for time-lapse changes due to CO2 injection.