Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Geophysics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 731545, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/731545
Research Article

New Bouguer Gravity Maps of Venezuela: Representation and Analysis of Free-Air and Bouguer Anomalies with Emphasis on Spectral Analyses and Elastic Thickness

1Institut für Geowissenschaften Abteilung Geophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Otto-Hahn-Platz 1, 24118 Kiel, Germany
2Departamento de Geofísica, Fundación Venezolana de Investigaciones Sismológicas FUNVISIS, 1070 Caracas, Venezuela

Received 10 August 2011; Revised 2 November 2011; Accepted 3 November 2011

Academic Editor: Joerg Schleicher

Copyright © 2012 Javier Sanchez-Rojas. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. K. McConnell, P. J. Winter, and R. F. Geller, “Latin American Gravity Standardization Network 1977 (LAGSN77),” ed. Panama: Earth Physics Branch, Canada, and Servicio Geodesico Interamericano, 1979.
  2. V. R. Graterol, “Mapa de anomalía de Bouguer de la Republica de Venezuela,” ed. Caracas: Universidad Simón Bolívar; Dirección de Cartografía Nacional de Venezuela; Energy, Mines and Resources Canada; Defense mapping agency, Inter American geodetic survey, 1988, p. Mapa de anomalía de Bouguer de la Republica de Venezuela (P=2.67 g/cc).
  3. C. Izarra, M. I. Jácome, M. Schmitz et al., “Analyzing gravity anomalies over the Caribbean and northern Venezuela tectonic plate boundary,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Andean Geodynamics (ISAG '05), Barcelona, Spain, 2005.
  4. J. L. Pindell, “Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean,” in Caribbean Geology, An Introduction, S. K. Donovan, Ed., pp. 13–39, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Meschede and W. Frisch, “A plate-tectonic model for the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic history of the Caribbean plate,” Tectonophysics, vol. 296, no. 3-4, pp. 269–291, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. L. Pindell and J. F. Dewey, “Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea and the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico/Caribbeanregion,” Tectonics, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 179–211, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. K. Burke, “Tectonic evolution of the Caribbean,” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol. 16, pp. 201–230, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. L. Pindell, S. C. Cande, W. C. Pitman et al., “A plate-kinematic framework for models of Caribbean evolution,” Tectonophysics, vol. 155, no. 1–4, pp. 121–138, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. L. Pindell and S. Barrett, “Geologic evolution of the Caribbean: a plate-tectonic perspective,” in The Geology of North America, G. Dengo and J. E. Case, Eds., vol. H of The Caribbean Region, pp. 405–432, Geological Society of America, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. L. Pindell, L. Kennan, W. V. Maresch et al., “Plate kinematics and crustal dynamics of circum-Caribbean arc-continent interactions: tectonic controls on basin development in proto-Caribbean margins,” in Caribbean-South American Plate Interactions, Venezuela, GSA Special Paper 394, H. G. A. Lallemant, V. B. Sisson, and H. G. A. Lallemant, Eds., pp. 7–52, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  11. M. Ostos, F. Yoris, and H. G. A. Lallemant, “Overview of the Southeast Caribbean-south American plate boundary zone,” Special Paper of the Geological Society of America, no. 394, pp. 53–89, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. C. Weber, T. H. Dixon, C. DeMets et al., “GPS estimate of relative motion between the Caribbean and South American plates, and geologic implications for Trinidad and Venezuela,” Geology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 75–78, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Chacín, M. I. Jácome, and C. Izarra, “Flexural and gravity modelling of the Mérida Andes and Barinas-Apure Basin, Western Venezuela,” Tectonophysics, vol. 405, no. 1–4, pp. 155–167, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. I. Jácome, N. Kusznir, F. Audemard, and S. Flint, “Formation of the Maturín foreland basin, eastern Venezuela: thrust sheet loading or subduction dynamic topography,” Tectonics, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1–1, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Bellizzia, “Geología del Macizo de El Baúl, Estado Cojedes,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Congreso Geológico Venezolano, 1961.
  16. J.-F. Stephan, Evolution geodinamique du domaine Caraibe, Andes et chaine Caraibe sur la transversale de Barquisimeto (Venezuela), Ph.D. thesis, Paris, France, 1982.
  17. F. E. Audemard, Tectonics of Western Venezuela, Ph.D. thesis, Rice University, Houston, Tex, USA, 1991.
  18. B. Colletta, F. Roure, B. de Toni, D. Loureiro, H. Passalacqua, and Y. Gou, “Tectonic inheritance, crustal architecture, and contrasting structural styles in the Venezuela Andes,” Tectonics, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 777–794, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. E. Audemard and F. A. Audemard, “Structure of the Mérida Andes, Venezuela: relations with the South America-Caribbean geodynamic interaction,” Tectonophysics, vol. 345, no. 1–4, pp. 299–327, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Schubert, “Basin formation along the Bocono-Moron-El Pilar fault system, Venezuela,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 89, no. 7, pp. 5711–5718, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. P. Kohn, R. Shagam, P. O. Banks et al., “Mesozoic-Pleistocene fission-track ages on rocks of the Venezuelan Andes and their tectonic implications,” in The Caribbean South American PIate Boundary and Regional Tectonics, W. E. Bonini, R. B. Hargraves, and R. Shagam, Eds., vol. 162, pp. 365–384, Geological Society of America Memoirs, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  22. H. G. avé Lallemant, “Transpression, displacement partitioning, and exhumation in the eastern Caribbean / South American plate boundary zone,” Tectonics, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 272–289, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Beck, La chaine Caraïbe au méridien de Caracas: géologie, tectogenese, place dans l'évolution géodynamique Mesozoique-Cenozoique des Caraïbes Méridionales, Ph.D. thesis, L'Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, 1985.
  24. A. B. Bellizzia, “Sistema Montañoso del Caribe, una cordillera alóctona en la parte Norte de América del Sur,” in Proceedings of the the 6 Congreso Geológico Venezolano, Memorias, Sociedad Venezolana de Geólogos, 1986.
  25. E. Navarro, M. Ostos, and F. Yoris, “Revisión y redefinición de unidades litoestratigráficas y síntesis de un modelo tectónico para la evolución de la parte Norte-Central de Venezuela durante el Jurásico Medio-Paleógeno,” Acta Cientifica Venezolana, vol. 39, pp. 427–436, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  26. T. W. Donnelly, D. Beets, M. J. Carr et al., “History and tectonic setting of Caribbean magmatism,” in The Caribbean Region, G. Dengo and J. E. Case, Eds., vol. H of The Geology of North America, pp. 339–374, The Geological Society of America, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Ostos, “Tectonic evolution of the south-central margin of the Caribbean based on geochemical dates (Evolución tectónica del margen Sur-Central del Caribe basado en dates geoquímicos),” GEOS, vol. 30, pp. 1–294, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  28. G. Giunta, L. Beccaluva, M. Coltorti, F. Siena, and C. Vaccaro, “The southern margin of the Caribbean Plate in Venezuela: tectono-magmatic setting of the ophiolitic units and kinematic evolution,” Lithos, vol. 63, no. 1-2, pp. 19–40, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Feo-Codecido, F. D. J. Smith, N. Aboud et al., “Basement and Paleozoic rocks of the Venezuelan Llanos basins,” in The Caribbean-South American Plate Boundary and Regional Tectonics, R. B. Hargrave, Ed., pp. 175–187, The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  30. C. G. de Juana, J. Iturralde, and X. Picard, Geología de Venezuela y de sus Cuencas Petrolíferas, Ediciones Foninves, Caracas, Venezuela, 1980.
  31. S. M. Carbotte, R. Arko, D. N. Chayes et al., “New integrated data management system for Ridge2000 and MARGINS research,” Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, vol. 85, no. 51, pp. 553–559, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. Moritz, “Geodetic reference system 1980,” Bulletin Géodésique, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 395–405, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Kwang-Sun, L. Young-Cheol, and L. Mu-Taek, “Precise terrain torrection for gravity measurement considering the earth's curvature,” Journal of the Korean Earth Science Society, vol. 28, pp. 825–837, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  34. J. H. Karl, “The Bouguer correction for the spherical earth,” Geophysics, vol. 36, pp. 761–762, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  35. W. A. Heiskanen and H. Moritz, “Physical geodesy,” Bulletin Géodésique, vol. 86, pp. 491–492, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Drewes, W. Torge, R. H. Röder, C. Badell, D. Bravo, and O. Chourio, “Absolute and relative gravimetric surveys of national and geodynamic networks in Venezuela,” Journal of South American Earth Sciences, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 273–286, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Niu, T. Bravo, G. Pavlis et al., “Receiver function study of the crustal structure of the southeastern Caribbean plate boundary and Venezuela,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 112, no. 11, Article ID B11308, pp. 1–15, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Schmitz, J. Avila, M. Bezada et al., “Crustal thickness variations in Venezuela from deep seismic observations,” Tectonophysics, vol. 459, no. 1–4, pp. 14–26, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Spector and F. S. Grant, “Statistical methods for interpreting aeromagnetic data,” Geophysics, vol. 35, pp. 293–302, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  40. D. C. Mishra and P. S. Naidu, “Two-dimensional power spectral analysis of aeromagnetic fields,” Geophysical Prospecting, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 345–353, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. K. Bhattacharyya and L. K. Leu, “Spectral analysis of gravity and magnetic anomalies due to rectangular prismatic bodies,” Geophysics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Dimitriadis, G. A. Tselentis, and K. Thanassoulas, “A BASIC program for 2-D spectral analysis of gravity data and source-depth estimation,” Computers and Geosciences, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 549–560, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. A. Tselentis, J. Drakopoulos, and K. Dimitriadis, “A spectral approach to moho depths estimation from gravity measurements in Epirus (NW Greece),” Journal of Physics of the Earth, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 255–266, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. D. Regan and W. J. Hinze, “The effect of finite data length in the spectral analysis of ideal gravity anomalies,” Geophysics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 44–55, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. McKenzie and C. Bowin, “The relationship between bathymetry and gravity in the Atlantic Ocean,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 81, pp. 1903–1915, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  46. A. B. Watts, “An analysis of isostasy in the World's Oceans 1. Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 83, pp. 5989–6004, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  47. D. McKenzie and D. Fairhead, “Estimates of the effective elastic thickness of the continental lithosphere from Bouguer and free air gravity anomalies,” Journal of Geophysical Research B, vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 27523–27552, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. F. Roure, J. O. Carnevali, Y. Gou, and T. Subieta, “Geometry and kinematics of the North Monagas thrust belt (Venezuela),” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 347–362, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Schmitz, A. Martins, C. Izarra, M. I. Jácome, J. Sánchez, and V. Rocabado, “The major features of the crustal structure in north-eastern Venezuela from deep wide-angle seismic observations and gravity modelling,” Tectonophysics, vol. 399, no. 1–4, pp. 109–124, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. Viscarret, J. Wright, and F. Urbani, “New U-Pb zircon ages of El Baúl Massif, Cojedes State, Venezuela,” Revista Tecnica de la Facultad de Ingenieria Universidad del Zulia, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 210–221, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W. E. Bonini, C. Acker, and G. Buzan, “Gravity studies across the western Caribbean Mountains,” in Proceedings of the 5th Congreso Latinoamericano de Geología, Caracas, Venezuela, 1977.
  52. R. M. Russo and R. C. Speed, “Oblique collision and tectonic wedging of the South American continent and Caribbean terranes,” Geology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 447–450, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. C. VanDecar, R. M. Russo, D. E. James et al., “Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath continental South America,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 108, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  54. J. Sanchez, H. J. Götze, and M. Schmitz, “A 3-D lithospheric model of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary,” International Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 1697–1712, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. A. Tassara, C. Swain, R. Hackney, and J. Kirby, “Elastic thickness structure of South America estimated using wavelets and satellite-derived gravity data,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 253, no. 1-2, pp. 17–36, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Pérez-Gussinyé, A. R. Lowry, A. B. Watts, and I. Velicogna, “On the recovery of effective elastic thickness using spectral methods: examples from synthetic data and from the Fennoscandian Shield,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 109, no. 10, Article ID B10409, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. W. Forsyth, “Subsurface loading and estimates of the flexural rigidity of continental lithosphere,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 90, pp. 12623–12632, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  58. M. J. Bezada, M. Schmitz, M. I. Jácome, J. Rodríguez, F. Audemard, and C. Izarra, “Crustal structure in the Falcón Basin area, northwestern Venezuela, from seismic and gravimetric evidence,” Journal of Geodynamics, vol. 45, no. 4-5, pp. 191–200, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus