Figure 1: Method of simulation of strong ground motion showing (a) white Gaussian noise, (b) filter representing actual earthquake process, (c) filtered white noise, (d) envelope of accelerogram released by i, j element within the rupture plane shown in (f), (e) multiplication of the envelope with filtered white noise, (f) rupture plane divided into elements in the layered earth with i, j, element releasing record which is convolved with the correction factor F(t), (g) summation of all accelerograms from various elements according to their arrival time at the observation point, and (h) the simulated acceleration record and its acceleration spectrum. Figure modified after Joshi [10].