International Journal of Geophysics / 2019 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

A Review of the Advantages and Limitations of Geophysical Investigations in Landslide Studies

Table 2

This table summarizes the analysed scientific papers from the last twelve years (2007-2018) focused on “soil landslide”. The landslide typology and materials are defined as in the papers themselves. Moreover, where possible, we added the landslide classification according to [4]. Papers marked with # already adopted this classification. Papers marked with (°) and (°°) focus on the Super Sauze and La Vallette landslides, respectively. Drawbacks 1 to 5 are the limitations of the geophysical techniques applied to landslide characterizations pointed out by [11]. They are, respectively, as follows: Drawback 1: geophysicists have to make an effort in the presentation of their results; Drawback 2: the resolution and the penetration depth of each method are not systematically discussed in an understandable way; Drawback 3: the geological interpretation of geophysical data should be more clearly and critically explained; Drawback 4: the challenge for geophysicists is to convince geologists and engineers that 3D and 4D geophysical imaging techniques can be valuable tools for investigating and monitoring landslides; and Drawback 5: efforts should also be made towards obtaining quantitative information from geophysics in terms of geotechnical parameters and hydrological properties. +, -, and n.d. mean, respectively, that many/some, insufficient, and non-discussed efforts were made to overcome the limitations (see Table 4), while + means that the interpretation is linked to a numerical model or landslide feature identification. VES: vertical electrical sounding, ERT: electrical resistivity tomography, IP/SIP: induced polarization/spectral induced polarization, SP: self-potential, SPT: self-potential tomography, F/TDEM: frequency/time domain electro magnetism, VLF-EM: very low-frequency electro magnetism, EM: electro magnetism, RMT: radio magnetotelluric, AE: acoustic emission, SN: seismic noise, SR: seismic refraction, SRe: seismic reflection, SW: surface waves, DH: downhole, CH: crosshole, GPR: ground penetrating radar, MG: micro gravity, DTM: digital terrain model, SAR: synthetic aperture radar, GB-InSAR: ground based interferometric SAR, GPS: global position system, TS: total station, TLS: terrestrial laser scanners, CPT: cone penetration test, TDR: time domain reflectometry.

Year ReferenceLandslide typology (as defined by the author/s)Landslide typology (according [4])MaterialGeophysical Technique/sOther available dataDrawback 1Drawback 2Drawback 3Drawback 4Drawback 5

2007[22] (°)mudslideearthflowclay formationSN (local)GPS, geodetic and strain instrument, piezometer-n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.

2007[23]earthflow (the oldest movement), clay planar slide (reactivations)earthflowclay body over mudstone-shale basementERT, SR, SW, SN (local), DHSAR data, inclinometers, stratigraphy++-n.d.n.d.

2007[24]//mudstone, colluvium, limestone and carbonate brecciaSN (regional)/-n.d.-n.d.+

2007[25] (°)intra-material mudslideearthflowclay formationSR, ERT, SW, SN (local)boreholes+-+n.d.+

2007[26]rock and debris flowsrock avalanche and debris flows/SN (local)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2007[27] (°)(a) soft-rock (mudslide or clayey flow-like landslide)  
(b) translational landslide
(a) earthflow  
(b) clay planar landslide
clay formationSN (local), ERT(a) geology, geomorphology, geotechnics and hydrology  
(b) geomorphology and geotechnics
++--n.d.

2008[28]earthflowearthflowloessERT, SR, SN (local)DEM-n.d.+n.d.+

2008[29]//mudstone, colluvium, limestone and carbonate brecciaSN (local)/-n.d.-n.d.+

2009[30]debris flowdebris flowmetasediments, gneisses, quartzitesSN (local)meteorological data+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2009[31]earthflowearthflowflysch, calcareous AlpsSReboreholes, DEM-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2009[32]earthflowearthflowcoarse components in silty-clayey matrixSR, SReboreholes-n.d.n.d.n.d.n.d.

2009[33]/clay rotational and planar slide/SRe/---n.dn.d.

2010[34]sandy-clay translational landslideclay planar slidemarly limestoneERTpiezometer, field observations, boreholes-n.d.+n.d./++

2010[35]translational slope landslideclay rotational slide, sensitive clay flowslidemarine and glaciomarine clay (Fjord-deltaic sediments)seismic sub-bottom profileboreholes, CPT, geotechnical test, trenches, bathymetric data+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2010[36]deep landslideclay/silt rotational slide, mud flowglaciolacustrine claysSN (local)inclinometers, boreholes, GPS+n.d.++/n.d.n.d.

2010[37]debris slidedebris slideschist and gneissVLF-EM, VESboreholes, TS-n.d.-n.d.n.d.

2010[38]composite multiple earth slide – earth flowearth flowmudstone, sandstoneERTGPS++-n.d./+n.d.

2011[39]deep-seated landslidesoil slope deformationcoarse colluvium over mudstoneSN (local)/-n.d.+n.d.+

2011[40]/clay compound slidesandy, silty claySN (local)meteorological data, extensometers, SR, robotic TS-n.d.+n.d.-

2012[41]clayey landslideearthflowblack marlsSRgeometrical model, DEM+-+n.d.n.d.

2012[42]many/black marlERT, SR, SW/-n.d.+n.d.+

2012[43] (°°)intra-material landsliderotational and planar slide, mud flowclay-shale depositsERT, SR, SW/--+n.d.+

2012[44]debris flowdebris flow/SN (regional)/-n.d.+n.d./-n.d.

2012[45]complex retrogressive rot-translational sliderotational and planar slideschist, flyschERTTDR, weather station+n.d.-n.d./+-

2012[46] (°°)flow-like landsliderotational and planar slide, mud flowblack marls3D-SRboreholes, SR, ERT+n.d.++/n.d.n.d.

2012[7] (°)flow-like landslides (mudslides)earthflow/SR, ERT, GPR, EM, MGmany+++n.dn.d.

2012[47]deep-seated landslidesoil slope deformation/SN (regional)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2013[48]quick clay landslidesensitive clay flow-likeclayERT, IPresistivity CPT, geotechnical test-n.d.+n.dn.d.

2013[49]deep-seated landslidesoil slope deformationclay-rich formation and colluvial depositsSN (local)/--+n.d.n.d.

2013[50]shallow landslideplanar slide-earthflowsilty sand, marlstone, sandstoneERTTRD, tensiometer--+n.d./++

2013[51]earth flow (quick clay landslide)sensitive clay flowslidequick clay2D and 3D SR, SRe, SN (local), 2D and 3D ERT, EM, GPR, RMT, MGboreholes, CPT, LiDAR, geotechnical test-n.d.+-/n.d.n.d.

2013[52]earth flow (quick clay landslide)sensitive clay flowslidequick claySReboreholes, CPT, LiDAR, geotechnical test, ERT, IP-n.d.+-/n.d.n.d.

2013[53]/clay/silt rotational slidegravel, sand, and plastic and non-plastic fines from quartzite, phyllite, slate, and limestoneERT, IP, MGgeotechnical analysis-n.d.-n.d.n.d.

2013[54]surficial failures along a planar soil/rock interfaceclay/silt planar slideclayey sand, silty sand, sandstoneERTboreholes, geotechnical analysis, meteorological station, TDR. piezometer-n.d.-n.d./-+

2013[55]muddy landslidedebris flow, rock fall(a) black marls, (b) flysch and clay-shaleSN (local)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2013[9]mudslide and rotational/planar slide (°°)planar slideblack marls, flyschSRLiDAR, TLS, field investigations, GPS, DEM+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2013[56]deep-seated landslidesoil slope deformation/SN (local)LiDAR-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2014[57]transitional slideclay planar slideclay sandy calcarenitic succession2D and 3D ERT, SR, SN (local), SWboreholes+n.d.++/n.d.n.d.

2014[58]///SN (local)/-n.d.n.d.n.d.+

2014[59]composite rotational landslide (complex landslide)clay rotational landslidemarls, chalksERT, SRfield investigation, aerial orthophotographs, LiDAR, boreholes, DEM+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2014[60]complex, composite, successive earth-slide earth flowclay/silt rotational slide, earthflowmudstoneERTboreholes, LiDAR, aerial photos, DEM, GPS, inclinometer-n.d.++/n.d.-

2014[20]many/manyERT (ERT technique review paper)many+--+/+n.d.

2014[61]deep-seated gravitational deformation dismantled into slides and flowsclay/silt rotational and planar slide, earthflow, creepboulders, gravel and coarse sand over argillites and limestoneSRe, ERTinclinometers, boreholes, SR+n.d.-n.d.n.d.

2014[62](a) and (b) rotational-translational landslide(a) and (b) clay rotational/planar slide(a) colluvium, (b) colluvium and amphiboliteERTinclinometer, 3D displacement measures, piezometric water level, soil temperature+++n.d./+n.d.

2015[63] (#)debris flowdebris flowglacial till, outwash sedimentsSN (regional)LiDAR, GIS, numerical modelling+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2015[64]debris flowdebris flowSN (regional)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2015[65]earth-flowearthflowsandstone and limestoneERTGPS+n.d.n.d.+n.d.

2015[66]earthflowearthflowmarl, claystone, mudstone, alluvium, limestoneERT, SP,/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2016[67] (#)shallow clay planar slideclay planar slideplastic blue marls, limestone, blue claysERTGPS, aerial photo, boreholes, auger and penetration, geotechnical analysis, rainfall and groundwater level data+-+n.d.n.d.

2016[68] (°)clayey landslideearthflowblack marlsERT/+++n.d./+-

2016[69]shallow creeping landslidesoil slope deformationclayey silt, mild clay and gravelly sand, covered by grass peat and turf.  
(bedrock: mudstone, sandstone)
ERT, GPRboreholes-n.d.-n.d.n.d.

2016[70] (#)debris flowdebris flowsandstone, claystone, siltstone, volcanic rocks, Quaternary sedimentsERT, EM, SP, MGgamma-ray, soil Radon, boreholes, GPS-n.d.-n.d.n.d.

2016[71]translational landslideclay/silt planar slidesilty clay with gravels over sandstone and mudstoneERTboreholes, inclinometers, piezometers, pluviometer, osmometer+n.d.+n.d./-n.d.

2016[72]quick-clay landslidesensitive clay flowslidequick clayFDEM, ERT, SR, SWLiDAR, geotechnical test, resistivity-CPT, boreholes+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2016[73]loess landslideclay/silt rotational slidesandy and clayey loessERT/--+n.d.+

2016[74] (#)multiple earth slide-earth flowearth flowmudstone, sandstoneSR3D-ERT, geotechnical analysis+-+n.d.-

2016[75]complex landslideclay compound slideclays, sands, gravelsSW, SN (local), VESborehole+-+n.d.n.d.

2017[10](a), (b) complex roto-translational landslide(a) clay/silt rotational and planar slide  
(b) clay/silt rotational and planar slide, earthflow
limestoneSN (local)boreholes, inclinometers,+n.d.-+/n.d.n.d.

2017[76]debris flowdebris flowschists, dolobreccias, quartzitesSN (local)flow stage sensors-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2018[77]Sackung-like movementsoil slope deformationsandstone, colluvium Quaternary depositsERT, SR, SN (local)boreholes, geotechnical analysis, DEM, remote images, GPS+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2018[78]flow-like landsliderotational and planar slide, mud flowsandstone, limestoneIP, SIPLiDAR, GPS, boreholes geotechnical analysis, ERT, SR+-+n.d.n.d.

2018[79]roto-translational slide, earth slide and flowsclay/silt rotational and planar slide, earthflowflysch, metamorphic rocksSN (local), ERTDTM, aerial images-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2018[80]/earth flow (?)sandstone, shale, coal shale, marl, clay, siltERTboreholes, geotechnical analysis, SPT, field investigations+-+n.d./++

2018[81](a) mudflow, (b) debris flow(a) mud flow, (b) debris flow/SN (local), AEultrasonic gauge, video cameras+n.d.+n.d./-n.d.

2018[82]loess landslideclay/silt rotational slideclayey and sandy loessERTpressure pore-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2018[83] (#)(a), (b) clay-rich debris slide (clayey landslide)(a), (b) earthflowclay-rich matrix, marls and limestoneSN (local)/+n.d.+n.d.n.d.