International Journal of Geophysics / 2019 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

A Review of the Advantages and Limitations of Geophysical Investigations in Landslide Studies

Table 3

This table summarizes the analysed scientific papers from the last twelve years (2007-2018) focused on “rock landslide”. Landslide typology and materials are defined as in the papers themselves. Moreover, where possible, we added the landslide classification according to [4]. Papers marked with # already adopted this classification. Papers marked with (°) focus on the Randa landslides. Drawbacks 1 to 5 are the limitations of the geophysical techniques applied to landslide characterizations pointed out by [11]. They are, respectively, as follows Drawback 1: geophysicists have to make an effort in the presentation of their results; Drawback 2: the resolution and penetration depth of each method are not systematically discussed in an understandable way; Drawback 3: the geological interpretation of geophysical data should be more clearly and critically explained; Drawback 4: the challenge for geophysicists is to convince geologists and engineers that 3D and 4D geophysical imaging techniques can be valuable tools for investigating and monitoring landslides; and Drawback 5: efforts should also be made towards obtaining quantitative information from geophysics in terms of geotechnical parameters and hydrological properties. +, -, and n.d. mean, respectively, that many/some, insufficient, and non-discussed efforts were made to overcome the limitations (see Table 4), while + means that the interpretation is linked to a numerical model or landslide feature identification. VES: vertical electrical sounding, ERT: electrical resistivity tomography, IP/SIP: induced polarization/spectral induced polarization, SP: self-potential, SPT: self-potential tomography, F/TDEM: frequency/time domain electro magnetism, VLF-EM: very low-frequency electro magnetism, EM: electro magnetism, RMT: radio magnetotelluric, AE: acoustic emission, SN: seismic noise, SR: seismic refraction, SRe: seismic reflection, SW: surface waves, DH: downhole, CH: crosshole, GPR: ground penetrating radar, MG: micro gravity, DTM: digital terrain model, SAR: synthetic aperture radar, GB-InSAR: ground based interferometric SAR, GPS: global position system, TS: total station, TLS: terrestrial laser scanners, CPT: cone penetration test, TDR: time domain reflectometry.

Year ReferenceLandslide typology (as defined by the author/s)Landslide typology (according [4])MaterialGeophysical Technique/sOther available dataDrawback 1Drawback 2Drawback 3Drawback 4Drawback 5

2007[84]Rockfall/debris flowsrock fall, debris flowbasalticSN (local)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2007[85]rock fallrock falllimestoneGPRboreholes, mining--+n.d.n.d.

2007[26]rock and debris flowsrock avalanche and debris flows/SN (local)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2007[86] (°)rock fallrock fallheterogeneous gneissesSN (local), 3D-SRTboreholes, GPR, geodetic, geotechnical, meteorological monitoring system+n.d.-+/n.d.n.d.

2008[87]rock fallrock falllimestoneERT, GPRTLS, photogrammetry+-+n.d.n.d.

2008[88]rock fall and rock-fall avalanchesrock fall and rock avalanchelimestone, amphibolite, graniteSN (regional)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2008[89]rockfallrock falllava domeSN (regional)/-n.d.+n.dn.d.

2008[90]rotational slidingrockslide (any specific typology emerged)marl and schistairborne EM, ERT, geophysical logs, SPboreholes, geotechnical test, hydrophysical logs, DEM, gamma ray spectrometer, inclinometers--+n.d/-n.d.

2008[91]rockfall (artificial)rock fall/SN (local)videos, photos+n.d.+n.d.-

2008[92] (°)rocksliderock wedge slideheterogeneous gneissesSR, GPR,boreholes, field mapping+-+-/n.d.n.d.

2009[93]rockfallrock fallmetalliferous limestoneSN (local)TS, TLS++-n.d.n.d.

2009[94]rock-fallrock fallchalkSN (local)+n.d.-n.d.n.d.

2010[95]rockfallrock fallothogneissesSN (local)thermometer-n.d.-n.d.n.d.

2010[96]rocksliderock block topplingheterogeneous gneissesSN (local)GPS+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2010[97]rocksliderock compound slidemeta-granodiorite and two-mica gneissSN (local)GPS, meteorological data-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2010[98]rock slice collapserock rotational slidelimestoneSN (local)extensometer-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2010[99]rocksliderock fallmicaschistsSN (local)meteorological station, GPS+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2010[100]rock fallrock falllimestone and marly limestoneSN (local), SRextensometer+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2010[101]rock-ice avalancherock/ice avalancheplutonic rocksSN (regional)DEM-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2010[102]deep-seated with several debris flowrock slope deformationflysh and evaporitesSR, SRe/+n.d+n.d.n.d.

2011[103]rockslidemanymanySN (regional)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2011[104]rockfallrock fallvolcanosSN (local)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2011[105]rocksliderock fallmicaschistsSN (local)GPS, boreholes+++n.d.n.d.

2011[106]rockfallrock falllimestoneSN (local), SR-n.d.+n.dn.d.

2011[107]rock sloperock block topplingparagneiss and schistsSN (local)regional earthquakes, fibre optic strain sensors+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2011[108]rockslide (long-runout)rock planar slideflysch (claystone/mudstone sequence)ERTradiocarbon and dendrogeomorphological analysis, geomorphic mapping, GPS, geotechnical analysis+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2011[109]deep-seated gravitational slope deformationmountain slope deformationflyschERTfield survey, kinematic analysis, trenches+-+n.d.n.d.

2012[110]rock fall (precondition for)rock fallgranitic gneissAEmeteorological data--+n.d.n.d.

2012[111]/rock fall/rock block topple (?)orthogneissSN (local)/+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2012[112]rock-fallrock fallgneiss and gabbroSN (local)thermometers, GPS-n.d.+n.d./-n.d.

2012[113]rockfall and lateral spreadingrock falllimestone, clay formationSN (local)+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2012[114]rockfall in the source area of a mudsliderock fallblack marlsSN (regional)extensometers, DEM+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2012[115]rockfallrock fallflysch, marls and limestoneSN (local)meteorological and hydrological data, local seismicity+n.d.+n.d./-n.d.

2013[116]rockslide-debris flowrock irregular slide, debris flowrhyodacite breccias, tuffSN (regional)/-n.d.+n.d.-

2013[117](a), (b), and (d) toppling/basal sliding, (c) rock compound slide(a), (b), and (d) rock block topple, (c) rock compound slide(a) argillites  
(b) and (d) limestone  
(c) shale- sandstone series
SN (local)   
(a) SR, (c) ST
meteorological station  
(a) displacement measures, (b) and (c) extensometers,

2013[118]many: rockfall, debris avalanche, slidesmany: rock fall, debris avalanche (any specific soil or rock emerged)many (not specified)SN (regional/catchment)meteorological data, satellite images, aerial photos+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2013[119]plan and toppling failures/mainly claystone and siltstoneVESDEM-n.d.-n.d.n.d.

2013[55]muddy landslidedebris flow, rock fall(a) black marls, (b) flysch and clay-shaleSN (local)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2014[120]rockfall/limestoneSN (local)LiDAR, photogrammetry, video cameras, extensometer, tiltmeter+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2014[121]rockfallrock fallvolcanosSN (local)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2014[122]deep-seated landslidemountain slope deformationflysch, sandstoneERTfield survey+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2015[123]rockslide/argillaceous materials intercalated with mudstone/limestoneERT, VES, SR-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2015[124] (#)tilting and rock fallrock slope spreaddolomiteERTTLS, GPS+n.d.++/n.dn.d.

2016[125]rockfallrock fallgraniteCH, SRgeotechnical analysis, crackmeters, temperature probes, inclinometers, SN-n.d.+n.d.+

2016[126] (#)21 landslides: 12 rock falls, 8 rock slides and 1 rock avalanche21 landslides: 12 rock falls, 8 rock slides (any specific typology emerged) and 1 rockmanySN (local)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2016[127]rockslideplanar rockslide, rock fall, debris avalanchedolomiteSN (regional)/-n.d.+n.d./-n.d.

2017[128]rockfallrock falllimestoneSN (local)TLS+++n.d.n.d.

2017[129]rockfallrock falllimestoneSN (local)GPS, photo camera+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2017[130]rock sliderockslide (any specific typology emerged)paragneissSW, SN/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2017[131]rockfallrock fallblack marlsSN (local)/-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2017[132]deep-seated landslidemountain slope deformationsedimentary rocks and flyschERT, GPR, SR, MGfield survey, GPS+-+n.d.n.d.

2018[133]rockfallrock falllimestoneSN (local)weather station, DEM-n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2018[134]rock sliderock compound slide, rock fall, debris avalancheamphibolitic and augen gneissSN (local)extensometers, meteorological station, GPS+n.d.+n.d.n.d.

2018[135]rockfallrock falllimestoneSN (local)extensometer, meteorological data+n.d.-n.d./-n.d.