International Journal of Geophysics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Study on Coulomb Stress Triggering of the April 2015 M7.8 Nepal Earthquake Sequence Thu, 13 Oct 2016 14:43:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/7378920/ In April 2015, a M7.8 earthquake occurred less than one month before a M7.3 earthquake near Kodari, Nepal. The Nepal earthquake sequences also include four larger (M > 6) aftershocks. To reveal the interrelation between the main shock and the aftershocks, we check the role of coseismic coulomb stress triggering on aftershocks that follow the M7.8 main shock. Based on the focal mechanisms of the aftershocks and source models of the main shock, the coulomb failure stress changes on both of the focal mechanism nodal planes are calculated. In addition, the coulomb stress changes on the focal sources of each aftershock are also calculated. A large proportion of the M > 6 aftershocks occurred in positive coulomb stress areas triggered by the M7.8 main shock. The secondary triggering effect of the M7.3 aftershock is also found in this paper. More specifically, the M7.3 aftershock promoted failure on the rupture plane of the M6.3 aftershock. Therefore, we may conclude that the majority of larger aftershocks, which accumulated positive coulomb stress changes during the sequence, were promoted or triggered by the main shock failure. It suggests that coulomb stress triggering contributed to the evolution of the Nepal M7.8 earthquake sequence. Jianchao Wu, Qing Hu, Weijie Li, and Dongning Lei Copyright © 2016 Jianchao Wu et al. All rights reserved. Variability and Trend of Annual Maximum Daily Rainfall in Northern Algeria Wed, 27 Jul 2016 07:34:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/6820397/ The daily rainfall dataset of 35 weather stations covering the north of Algeria was studied for a period up to 43 years, recorded after 1970s. The variability and trends in annual maximum daily rainfall (AMDR) time series and their contributions in annual rainfall (AR) were investigated. The analysis of the series was based on statistical characteristics, Burn’s seasonality procedure, Mann-Kendall test, and linear regression technique. The contribution of the AMDR to AR analysis was subjected to both the Buishand test and the double mass curve technique. The AMDR characteristics reveal a strong temporal irregularity and have a wide frequency of occurrence in the months of November and December while the maximum intensity occurred in October. The observed phenomenon was so irregular that there was no dominant season and the occurrence of extreme event can arrive at any time of the year. The AMDR trends showed that only six of 35 stations have significant trend. For other stations, no clear trend was highlighted. This result was confirmed by the linear regression procedure. On the contrary, the contribution of AMDR in annual totals exhibited a significant increasing trend for 57% of the sites studied with a growth rate of up to 50%. Abderrahmane Nekkache Ghenim and Abdesselam Megnounif Copyright © 2016 Abderrahmane Nekkache Ghenim and Abdesselam Megnounif. All rights reserved. Integrated Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar Observations of Underground Seepage of Hot Water at Blawan-Ijen Geothermal Field Wed, 13 Jul 2016 11:34:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/6034740/ Geothermal resource investigation was accomplished for Blawan-Ijen geothermal system. Blawan geothermal field which located in the northern part of Ijen caldera presents hydrothermal activity related with Pedati fault and local graben. There were about 21 hot springs manifestations in Blawan-Ijen area with calculated temperature about 50°C. We have performed several geophysical studies of underground seepage of hot water characterization. The geoelectric resistivity and GPR methods are used in this research because both of them are very sensitive to detect the presence of hot water. These preliminary studies have established reliable methods for hydrothermal survey that can accurately investigate the underground seepage of hot water with shallow depth resolution. We have successfully identified that the underground seepage of hot water in Blawan geothermal field is following the fault direction and river flow which is evidenced by some hot spring along the Banyu Pahit river with resistivity value less than 40 Ωm and medium conductivity. Sukir Maryanto, Ika Karlina Laila Nur Suciningtyas, Cinantya Nirmala Dewi, and Arief Rachmansyah Copyright © 2016 Sukir Maryanto et al. All rights reserved. Planetary Sciences, Geodynamics, Impacts, Mass Extinctions, and Evolution: Developments and Interconnections Thu, 16 Jun 2016 12:03:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/4703168/ Research frontiers in geophysics are being expanded, with development of new fields resulting from technological advances such as the Earth observation satellite network, global positioning system, high pressure-temperature physics, tomographic methods, and big data computing. Planetary missions and enhanced exoplanets detection capabilities, with discovery of a wide range of exoplanets and multiple systems, have renewed attention to models of planetary system formation and planet’s characteristics, Earth’s interior, and geodynamics, highlighting the need to better understand the Earth system, processes, and spatio-temporal scales. Here we review the emerging interconnections resulting from advances in planetary sciences, geodynamics, high pressure-temperature physics, meteorite impacts, and mass extinctions. Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi and Ligia Pérez-Cruz Copyright © 2016 Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi and Ligia Pérez-Cruz. All rights reserved. Influence of Error in Estimating Anisotropy Parameters on VTI Depth Imaging Sun, 15 May 2016 11:45:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/2848750/ Thin layers in sedimentary rocks lead to seismic anisotropy which makes the wave velocity dependent on the propagation angle. This aspect causes errors in seismic imaging such as mispositioning of migrated events if anisotropy is not accounted for. One of the challenging issues in seismic imaging is the estimation of anisotropy parameters which usually has error due to dependency on several elements such as sparse data acquisition and erroneous data with low signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, an isotropic and anelliptic VTI fast marching eikonal solvers are employed to obtain seismic travel times required for Kirchhoff depth migration algorithm. The algorithm solely uses compressional wave. Another objective is to study the influence of anisotropic errors on the imaging. Comparing the isotropic and VTI travel times demonstrates a considerable lateral difference of wavefronts. After Kirchhoff imaging with true anisotropy, as a reference, and with a model including error, results show that the VTI algorithm with error in anisotropic models produces images with minor mispositioning which is considerable for isotropic one specifically in deeper parts. Furthermore, over- or underestimating anisotropy parameters up to 30 percent are acceptable for imaging and beyond that cause considerable mispositioning. S. Y. Moussavi Alashloo, D. P. Ghosh, Y. Bashir, and W. Y. Wan Ismail Copyright © 2016 S. Y. Moussavi Alashloo et al. All rights reserved. Hydromagnetic Stability of Metallic Nanofluids (Cu-Water and Ag-Water) Using Darcy-Brinkman Model Thu, 14 Apr 2016 08:22:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/5864203/ Thermal convection of a nanofluid layer in the presence of imposed vertical magnetic field saturated by a porous medium is investigated for both-free, rigid-free, and both-rigid boundaries using Darcy-Brinkman model. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic forces due to the presence of nanoparticles and Lorentz’s force term due to the presence of magnetic field have been considered in the momentum equations along with Maxwell’s equations. Keeping in mind applications of flow through porous medium in geophysics, especially in the study of Earth’s core, and the presence of nanoparticles therein, the hydromagnetic stability of a nanofluid layer in porous medium is considered in the present formulation. An analytical investigation is made by applying normal mode technique and Galerkin type weighted residuals method and the stability of Cu-water and Ag-water nanofluids is compared. Mode of heat transfer is through stationary convection without the occurrence of oscillatory motions. Stability of the system gets improved appreciably by raising the Chandrasekhar number as well as Darcy number whereas increase in porosity hastens the onset of instability. Further, stability of the system gets enhanced as we proceed from both-free boundaries to rigid-free and to both-rigid boundaries. J. Ahuja, U. Gupta, and R. K. Wanchoo Copyright © 2016 J. Ahuja et al. All rights reserved. Estimate for Southwest China Sun, 13 Mar 2016 14:33:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/9305095/ Several methods were used to estimate from site profiles with borehole depths of about 20 m for the strong-motion stations located in Southwest China. The methods implemented include extrapolation (constant and gradient), Geomatrix Site Classification correlation with shear-wave velocity, and remote sensing (terrain and topography). The gradient extrapolation is the preferred choice of this study for sites with shear-wave velocity profile data. However, it is noted that the coefficients derived from the California data set are not applicable to sites in Southwest China. Due to the scarcity of borehole profiles data with depth of more than 30 m in Southwest China, 73 Kiknet profiles were used to generate new coefficients for gradient extrapolation. Fortunately, these coefficients provide a reasonable estimate of for sites in Southwest China. This study showed could be estimated by the time-average shear-wave velocity (average slowness) of only 10 meters of depth. Furthermore, a median estimate based upon Geomatrix Classification is derived from the results of the gradient extrapolation using a regional calibration of the Geomatrix Classification with . The results of this study can be applied to assign to the sites without borehole data in Southwest China. Yan Yu, Walter J. Silva, Bob Darragh, and Xiaojun Li Copyright © 2016 Yan Yu et al. All rights reserved. Reducing Magnetic Noise of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for High-Quality Magnetic Surveys Wed, 09 Mar 2016 13:49:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/4098275/ The use of light and ultralight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for magnetic data acquisition can be efficient for resolving multiple geological and engineering tasks including geological mapping, ore deposits’ prospecting, and pipelines’ monitoring. The accuracy of the aeromagnetic data acquired using UAV depends mainly on deviation noise of electric devices (engine, servos, etc.). The goal of this research is to develop a nonmagnetic unmanned aerial platform (NUAP) for high-quality magnetic surveys. Considering parameters of regional and local magnetic survey, a fixed-wing UAV suits geological tasks better for plain area and copter type for hills and mountains. Analysis of the experimental magnetic anomalies produced by a serial light fixed-wing UAV and subsequent magnetic and aerodynamic modeling demonstrates a capacity of NUAP with internal combustion engine carrying an atomic magnetic sensor mounted on the UAV wings to facilitate a high-quality magnetic survey. Boris Sterligov and Sergei Cherkasov Copyright © 2016 Boris Sterligov and Sergei Cherkasov. All rights reserved. 3D Gravity Modeling of Complex Salt Features in the Southern Gulf of Mexico Tue, 08 Mar 2016 08:08:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/1702164/ We present a three-dimensional (3D) gravity modeling and inversion approach and its application to complex geological settings characterized by several allochthonous salt bodies embedded in terrigenous sediments. Synthetic gravity data were computed for 3D forward modeling of salt bodies interpreted from Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM) seismic images. Density contrasts for the salt bodies surrounded by sedimentary units are derived from density-compaction curves for the northern Gulf of Mexico’s oil exploration surveys. By integrating results from different shape- and depth-source estimation algorithms, we built an initial model for the gravity anomaly inversion. We then applied a numerically optimized 3D simulated annealing gravity inversion method. The inverted 3D density model successfully retrieves the synthetic salt body ensemble. Results highlight the significance of integrating high-resolution potential field data for salt and subsalt imaging in oil exploration. Mauricio Nava-Flores, Carlos Ortiz-Aleman, Mauricio G. Orozco-del-Castillo, Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Alejandro Rodriguez-Castellanos, Carlos Couder-Castañeda, and Alfredo Trujillo-Alcantara Copyright © 2016 Mauricio Nava-Flores et al. All rights reserved. Discovery of Naturally Etched Fission Tracks and Alpha-Recoil Tracks in Submarine Glasses: Reevaluation of a Putative Biosignature for Earth and Mars Wed, 17 Feb 2016 09:51:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/2410573/ Over the last two decades, conspicuously “biogenic-looking” corrosion microtextures have been found to occur globally within volcanic glass of the in situ oceanic crust, ophiolites, and greenstone belts dating back to ~3.5 Ga. These so-called “tubular” and “granular” microtextures are widely interpreted to represent bona fide microbial trace fossils; however, possible nonbiological origins for these complex alteration microtextures have yet to be explored. Here, we reevaluate the origin of these enigmatic microtextures from a strictly nonbiological standpoint, using a case study on submarine glasses from the western North Atlantic Ocean (DSDP 418A). By combining petrographic and SEM observations of corrosion microtextures at the glass-palagonite interface, considerations of the tectonic setting, measurement of U and Th concentrations of fresh basaltic glass by ICP-MS, and theoretical modelling of the present-day distribution of radiation damage in basaltic glass caused by radioactive decay of U and Th, we reinterpret these enigmatic microtextures as the end product of the preferential corrosion/dissolution of radiation damage (alpha-recoil tracks and fission tracks) in the glass by seawater, possibly combined with pressure solution etch-tunnelling. Our findings have important implications for geomicrobiology, astrobiological exploration of Mars, and understanding of the long-term breakdown of nuclear waste glass. Jason E. French and David F. Blake Copyright © 2016 Jason E. French and David F. Blake. All rights reserved. A Superposition Based Diffraction Technique to Study Site Effects in Earthquake Engineering Tue, 16 Feb 2016 14:05:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/7131867/ A method to study the response of surface topographies submitted to incident waves is presented. The method is based on the superposition of diffracted sources described in Jaramillo et al. (2013). Since the technique proceeds in the frequency domain in terms of the superposition of incident, reflected, and diffracted waves, it has been termed like a superposition based diffraction approach. The final solution resulting from the superposition approach takes the form of a series of infinite terms, where each term corresponds to diffractions of increasing order and of decreasing amplitude generated by the interactions between the geometric singularities of the scatterer. A detailed, step-by-step algorithm to apply the method is presented with regard to the simple problem of scattering by a V-shaped canyon. In order to show the accuracy of the method we compare our time and frequency domain results with those obtained from a direct Green’s function approach. We show that fast solutions with an error of the order of 6.0% are obtained. Juan Gomez, Juan Jaramillo, Mario Saenz, and Juan Vergara Copyright © 2016 Juan Gomez et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Examination of a Theoretical Model of Streaming Potential Coupling Coefficient” Thu, 10 Dec 2015 09:14:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/941246/ Recently, Luong and Sprik published an article that compared measurements that had been made on 20 samples of saturated rock with a number of empirical models and Glover et al.’s 2012 theoretical model for zeta potential and streaming potential coefficient. They found that none of the empirical models could reproduce the streaming potential coefficient measurements which had been made in the presence of low pore fluid salinities, and the theoretical method could only do so if a constant zeta potential was invoked. This contribution in the form of a comment (i) indicates at least three possible errors in modelling that contribute to the mismatch between the theoretical model and the data at low salinities and (ii) carries out individual modelling on all of samples of Luong and Sprik’s 2014 dataset, showing that Glover et al.’s 2012 theoretical model matches the data well when the zeta potential is allowed to vary and good match can only be obtained with a constant zeta potential if an unrealistic value of zeta potential offset is used. P. W. J. Glover Copyright © 2015 P. W. J. Glover. All rights reserved. Relative Motion between St. Croix and the Puerto Rico-Northern Virgin Islands Block Derived from Continuous GPS Observations (1995–2014) Thu, 27 Aug 2015 06:33:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/915753/ St. Croix is located inside the sweep of the Lesser Antilles arc and near the southeastern edge of the Greater Antillean ridge. It is separated from the Puerto Rico and the Northern Virgin Islands (PRNVI) block by the Virgin Islands basin. Recent seismic activities demonstrate that the Virgin Islands basin is tectonically active. A better understanding of fault activities in the basin would improve seismic hazard assessment in this region. This study illustrates out a detailed way of deriving relative motion between St. Croix and the PRNVI block using current GPS geodesy infrastructure in the PRVI region. The local geodesy infrastructure includes over 20 continuous GPS stations and a Stable PRNVI Reference Frame (SPRNVIRF). Twenty-year continuous GPS observations (1995–2014) on St. Croix indicate that the island is presently moving away from the PRNVI block toward the southeast (S55°E) at a steady rate of 1.7 mm/year. The velocity vector can be decomposed into two 1.2 mm/year components along the long-axis and short-axis directions of the rhomboidal Virgin Islands basin. Quantitative results indicate that the Virgin Islands basin presently experiences left-lateral motion in a nearly east-west direction and extension in a nearly north-south direction. Hanlin Liu and Guoquan Wang Copyright © 2015 Hanlin Liu and Guoquan Wang. All rights reserved. X-Ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Sajau Coal, Berau Basin, Indonesia: 3D Imaging of Cleat and Microcleat Characteristics Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:02:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/415769/ The Pliocene Sajau coals of the Berau Basin area have a moderately to highly developed cleat system. Mostly the cleat fractures are well developed in both bright and dull bands, and these cleats are generally inclined or perpendicular to the bedding planes of the seam. The presence of cleat networks/fractures in coal seam is the important point in coalbed methane prospect. The 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) technique was performed to identify cleats characteristics in the Sajau coal seams, such as the direction of coal cleats, geometry of cleat, and cleats mineralization. By CT scan imaging technique two different types of natural fractures observed in Sajau coals have been identified, that is, face cleats and butt cleats. This technique also identified the direction of face cleats and butt cleats as shown in the resulting 3D images. Based on the images, face cleats show a NNE-SSW direction while butt cleats have a NW-SE direction. The crosscutting relationship indicated that NNE-SSW cleats were formed earlier than NW-SE cleats. The procedure also identified the types of minerals that filled the cleats apertures. Based on their density, the minerals are categorized as follows: very high density minerals (pyrite), high density minerals (anastase), and low density minerals (kaolinite, calcite) were identified filling the cleats aperture. Ahmad Helman Hamdani Copyright © 2015 Ahmad Helman Hamdani. All rights reserved. Superrotation of Earth’s Inner Core, Extraterrestrial Impacts, and the Effective Viscosity of Outer Core Thu, 21 May 2015 16:00:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/763716/ The recently verified superrotation of Earth’s inner core is examined and a new model is presented which is based on the tidal despinning of the mantle and the viscosity of the outer core. The model also takes into account other damping mechanisms arising from the inner core superrotation such as magnetic and gravitational coupling as well as contribution from eddy viscosity in the outer core. The effective viscosity obtained in this model confirms a previously well constrained value of about 103 Pa s. In addition, the model shows that the currently measured superrotation of the inner core must be almost exactly equal to its asymptotic or steady-state value. The effect of extraterrestrial impacts is also investigated, and it is shown that perturbations due to such impacts can only persist over a short geological time. Pirooz Mohazzabi and John D. Skalbeck Copyright © 2015 Pirooz Mohazzabi and John D. Skalbeck. All rights reserved. Geoelectrical Data Inversion by Clustering Techniques of Fuzzy Logic to Estimate the Subsurface Layer Model Tue, 10 Mar 2015 08:50:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/134834/ Soft computing based geoelectrical data inversion differs from conventional computing in fixing the uncertainty problems. It is tractable, robust, efficient, and inexpensive. In this paper, fuzzy logic clustering methods are used in the inversion of geoelectrical resistivity data. In order to characterize the subsurface features of the earth one should rely on the true field oriented data validation. This paper supports the field data obtained from the published results and also plays a crucial role in making an interdisciplinary approach to solve complex problems. Three clustering algorithms of fuzzy logic, namely, fuzzy -means clustering, fuzzy -means clustering, and fuzzy subtractive clustering, were analyzed with the help of fuzzy inference system (FIS) training on synthetic data. Here in this approach, graphical user interface (GUI) was developed with the integration of three algorithms and the input data (AB/2 and apparent resistivity), while importing will process each algorithm and interpret the layer model parameters (true resistivity and depth). A complete overview on the three above said algorithms is presented in the text. It is understood from the results that fuzzy logic subtractive clustering algorithm gives more reliable results and shows efficacy of soft computing tools in the inversion of geoelectrical resistivity data. A. Stanley Raj, D. Hudson Oliver, and Y. Srinivas Copyright © 2015 A. Stanley Raj et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Leakage Areas in an Earth Embankment from GPR Measurements and Permeability Logging Tue, 03 Mar 2015 11:10:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/610172/ Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a nondestructive method allowing the improvement of our knowledge of civil engineering structures. In particular, this method may be a nondestructive efficient tool for dike diagnosis and complete classical geotechnical methods. In this paper, we present GPR observations obtained on an earth embankment (crest and sloped paved revetment) in bad condition and located on the lateral canal of the Loire river (Saint Firmin, 80 km South East of Orléans). These measurements are combined with corings, visual inspection, and permeability logging performed with an updated drilling system, the Perméafor. This survey leads (i) to the detection of decompressed zones associated with leakage areas visible at the foot of the downstream slope and (ii) to the location of potentials voids underneath the paved revetment. This multidisciplinary approach complied with the dike inspection methodology proves its efficiency for the assessment of earth embankments. Raphaël Antoine, Cyrille Fauchard, Yannick Fargier, and Edouard Durand Copyright © 2015 Raphaël Antoine et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Hummel (Modified Schlumberger) Arrays of Vertical Electrical Sounding in Groundwater Exploration: Case Study of Parts of Ibadan Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria Sat, 28 Feb 2015 08:03:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/612303/ This research compared the interpretation results of the Vertical Electrical Sounding data acquired using the conventional Schlumberger and modified Schlumberger arrays with a view to assessing the effectiveness of the modified Schlumberger arrays of vertical electrical sounding as an alternative to the conventional Schlumberger array at sites with space constraint during groundwater exploration. A total of thirty-seven (37) sounding locations were occupied and one hundred (100) sounding data for both conventional Schlumberger and modified Schlumberger arrays were collected across different rock units within Ibadan metropolis, south-western Nigeria, with electrode spacing () ranging from 1 to 75 m. The field data were interpreted qualitatively by curve matching and computer iterative methods. Also, statistical analysis of subsurface units and the coefficient of correlation “” of the statistical plots of the field data shows the relationship between the different arrays. The raw data plot of the different arrays shows significant similarities while statistical analysis of the geo-electric parameters obtained from the different arrays across varied lithologic units show that strong relationships exist between the different field methods. The coefficient of correlation with values ranging from 0.7 to 0.99 implies that a good similarity exists between the different field methods employed in this study. Hence, modified Schlumberger arrays can be said to be a good alternative to the conventional Schlumberger array for groundwater exploration especially in urban settings where space constraint is a major challenge. Micheal Oladunjoye and Solomon Jekayinfa Copyright © 2015 Micheal Oladunjoye and Solomon Jekayinfa. All rights reserved. 3D Geometric Modeling of the Abu Madi Reservoirs and Its Implication on the Gas Development in Baltim Area (Offshore Nile Delta, Egypt) Sun, 01 Feb 2015 14:34:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/369143/ 3D geometric modeling has received renewed attention recently, in the context of visual scene understanding. The reservoir geometry of the Baltim fields is described by significant elements, such as thickness, depth maps, and fault planes, resulting from an interpretation based on seismic and well data. Uncertainties affect these elements throughout the entire interpretation process. They have some bearing on the geometric shape and subsequently on the gross reservoir volume (GRV) of the fields. This uncertainty on GRV also impacts volumes of hydrocarbons in place, reserves, and production profiles. Thus, the assessment of geometrical uncertainties is an essential first step in a field study for evaluation, development, and optimization purposes. Seismic data are best integrated with well and reservoir information. A 3D geometric model of the Late Messinian Abu Madi reservoirs in the time and depth domain is used to investigate the influence of the reservoir geometry on the gas entrapment. Important conceptual conclusions about the reservoir system behavior are obtained using this model. The results show that the reservoir shape influences the seismic response of the incised Abu Madi Paleovalley, making it necessary to account for 3D effects in order to obtain accurate results. Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah and Ahmed Y. Tawfik Copyright © 2015 Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah and Ahmed Y. Tawfik. All rights reserved. Simple Model for Simulating Characteristics of River Flow Velocity in Large Scale Wed, 28 Jan 2015 15:26:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/520893/ We propose a simple computer based phenomenological model to simulate the characteristics of river flow velocity in large scale. We use shuttle radar tomography mission based digital elevation model in grid form to define the terrain of catchment area. The model relies on mass-momentum conservation law and modified equation of motion of falling body in inclined plane. We assume inelastic collision occurs at every junction of two river branches to describe the dynamics of merged flow velocity. Husin Alatas, Dyo D. Prayuda, Achmad Syafiuddin, May Parlindungan, Nurjaman O. Suhendra, and Hidayat Pawitan Copyright © 2015 Husin Alatas et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Gas Sand Horizons of the Rashidpur Structure, Surma Basin, Bangladesh, Using 2D Seismic Interpretation Mon, 26 Jan 2015 08:28:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/840168/ A total of 13 seismic sections were used for 2D seismic interpretation in order to assess the subsurface geometry of gas sand horizons and hydrocarbon prospect of the Rashidpur structure, Surma Basin, Bangladesh. Out of five reflectors, two selected reflectors were mapped for the study. The top of the Upper Gas Sand (R3) reflector was elongated in N-S with the axis swinging slightly to the east on the northern plunge. North-South trending thrust fault was identified in the eastern part which is parallel to the axial line of the structure. The reflection patterns of the gas sand horizons were parallel to each other and similar in nature. The reflection coefficients were positive at the base and negative at the top of the each gas sand horizons. Velocity dropped from 2562 m/s to 2177 m/s in the Upper Gas Sand (R3) and 4320 m/s to 3413 m/s in the Lower Gas Sand (R5) reflector. Bright spot and amplitude anomalies were identified on the top of the both gas sand horizons. The result depicts that the shape of the gas sand horizons is asymmetric anticline. The structure is compressed and elongated NNW-SSE trending anticline. The study reveals hydrocarbon potentiality of the structure. Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam and Md. Ahosan Habib Copyright © 2015 Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam and Md. Ahosan Habib. All rights reserved. Geophysical Contribution in the Characterization of Deep Water Tables Geometry (Sidi Bouzid, Central Tunisia) Thu, 15 Jan 2015 14:35:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/239797/ Geophysical data combined with geological and hydrogeological data were analyzed to characterize the geometry of Oued El Hajel and Ouled Asker deep water tables (Sidi Bouzid). The obtained results allowed refining the geostructural schema by highlighting the individualization of the NE-SW underground convexity of Ouled Asker and the anticline of axis Es Souda-Hmaeima and Ezaouia on either sides of two hydrogeological thresholds. The geometrical analysis determined the spatial extension of Ouled Asker and Oued El Hajel subbasins. The seismic cartography of semideep and deep reservoirs (Oligo-Miocene; Eocene and upper Cretaceous) associated with the main subbasins contributed to proposing hydrogeological prospect zones for a rationalized groundwater exploitation. D. Khazri and H. Gabtni Copyright © 2015 D. Khazri and H. Gabtni. All rights reserved. Acoustic-Gravity Waves Interacting with a Rectangular Trench Wed, 14 Jan 2015 10:42:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/806834/ A mathematical solution of the two-dimensional linear problem of an acoustic-gravity wave interacting with a rectangular trench, in a compressible ocean, is presented. Expressions for the flow field on both sides of the trench are derived. The dynamic bottom pressure produced by the acoustic-gravity waves on both sides of the trench is measurable, though on the transmission side it decreases with the trench depth. A successful recording of the bottom pressures could assist in the early detection of tsunami. Usama Kadri Copyright © 2015 Usama Kadri. All rights reserved. Zero-Offset VSP Monitoring of CO2 Storage: Impedance Inversion and Wedge Modelling at the Ketzin Pilot Site Sun, 14 Dec 2014 00:10:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/294717/ At the CO2 storage pilot site near the town of Ketzin (35 km west of Berlin, Germany) the sandstone reservoir at 630 m–650 m depth is thin and heterogeneous. The time-lapse analysis of zero-offset VSP measurements shows that CO2-induced amplitude changes can be observed on near-well corridor stacks. Further, we investigate whether CO2-induced amplitude changes in the monitoring data can be used to derive geometrical and petrophysical parameters governing the migration of CO2 within a brine saturated sandstone aquifer. 2D seismic-elastic modelling is done to test the processing workflow and to perform a wedge modelling study for estimation of the vertical expansion of the CO2 plume. When using the NRMS error as a measure for the similarity between the modelled and recorded repeat traces, the best match is achieved for a plume thickness of 6-7 m within the reservoir sandstone of 8 m thickness. With band limited impedance inversion a velocity reduction at the top of the reservoir of 30%, influenced by casing reverberations as well as CO2 injection, is found. The relation of seismic amplitude to CO2 saturated layer thickness and CO2-induced changes in P-wave velocities are important parameters for the quantification of the injected CO2 volume. Julia Götz, Stefan Lüth, Charlotte M. Krawczyk, and Calin Cosma Copyright © 2014 Julia Götz et al. All rights reserved. Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Technique for Characterizing Leakage Problem in Abu Baara Earth Dam, Syria Thu, 11 Dec 2014 00:10:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/368128/ Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) survey was carried out at Abu Baara earth dam in northwestern Syria, in order to delineate potential pathways of leakage occurring through the subsurface structure close to the dam body. The survey was performed along two straight measuring profiles of 715 and 430 m length in up- and downstream sides of the dam’s embankment. The analysis of the inverted ERT sections revealed the presence of fractured and karstified limestone rocks which constitute the shallow bedrock of the dam reservoir. Several subsurface structural anomalies were identified within the fractured bedrock, most of which are associated with probable karstic cavities, voids, and discontinuity features developed within the carbonates rocks. Moreover, results also showed the occurrence of a distinguished subsiding structure coinciding with main valley course. Accordingly, it is believed that the bedrock and the other detected features are the main potential causes of water leakage from the dam’s reservoir. Walid Al-Fares Copyright © 2014 Walid Al-Fares. All rights reserved. Diacritical Seismic Signatures for Complex Geological Structures: Case Studies from Shushan Basin (Egypt) and Arkoma Basin (USA) Tue, 02 Dec 2014 00:10:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/876180/ Seismic reflection techniques show an imperative role in imaging complex geological structures and are becoming more acceptable as data interpreting tools in 2D/3D view. These subsurface geological structures provide complex seismic signature due to their geometrical behavior. Consequently, it is extremely difficult to interpret these seismic sections in terms of subsurface configuration. The main goal of this paper is to introduce seismic attributes as a powerful tool to interpret complex geological structures in different geological settings. In order to image these complex geological features, multiple seismic attributes such as coherence and curvature have been applied to the seismic data generated over the Shushan Basin (Egypt) and Arkoma Basin (USA). Each type of geological structure event usually generates a unique seismic “signature” that we can recognize and identify by using these seismic attributes. In Shushan Basin (Egypt), they provide a framework and constraint during the interpretation and can help prevent mistakes during a 3D structural modeling. In Arkoma Basin (USA), the seismic attributes results provide useful information for broader analyses of the complex structural relations in the region where the Ouachita orogenic belt intersects with the southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Finally, complex geological structures provide dramatically diacritical seismic signatures that can be easily interpreted by collaborating conventional seismic interpretation techniques with multiple seismic attributes. Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah and Hamed A. Alrefaee Copyright © 2014 Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah and Hamed A. Alrefaee. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Integrated Approach to Investigate the Effect of Leachate on Groundwater around the Ikot Ekpene Dumpsite in Akwa Ibom State, Southeastern Nigeria” Sun, 19 Oct 2014 11:00:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/636129/ N. J. George, A. I. Ubom, and J. I. Ibanga Copyright © 2014 N. J. George et al. All rights reserved. Delineation of Fractured Aquifer Using Numerical Analysis (Factor) of Resistivity Data in a Granite Terrain Tue, 14 Oct 2014 11:37:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/585204/ In hard rock terrain, fractured aquifers comprise the major source of groundwater availability where the phreatic aquifer is desaturated. Identification of fracture zones in hard rock terrain and potential groundwater source delineation had been a perennial problem in hydrology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the study over a small watershed area, in a granite terrain, wherein an attempt was made to delineate and map the fractured aquifer using numerical (factor) analysis of the conventional vertical electrical sounding data, which was obscure in curve matching technique. This numerical approach in concatenation with resistivity imaging or other techniques would prove to be an effective tool in groundwater exploration. Rolland Andrade Copyright © 2014 Rolland Andrade. All rights reserved. Rational Rock Physics for Improved Velocity Prediction and Reservoir Properties Estimation for Granite Wash (Tight Sands) in Anadarko Basin, Texas Tue, 26 Aug 2014 05:51:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/209351/ Due to the complex nature, deriving elastic properties from seismic data for the prolific Granite Wash reservoir (Pennsylvanian age) in the western Anadarko Basin Wheeler County (Texas) is quite a challenge. In this paper, we used rock physics tool to describe the diagenesis and accurate estimation of seismic velocities of P and S waves in Granite Wash reservoir. Hertz-Mindlin and Cementation (Dvorkin’s) theories are applied to analyze the nature of the reservoir rocks (uncemented and cemented). In the implementation of rock physics diagnostics, three classical rock physics (empirical relations, Kuster-Toksöz, and Berryman) models are comparatively analyzed for velocity prediction taking into account the pore shape geometry. An empirical (-) relationship is also generated calibrated with core data for shear wave velocity prediction. Finally, we discussed the advantages of each rock physics model in detail. In addition, cross-plots of unconventional attributes help us in the clear separation of anomalous zone and lithologic properties of sand and shale facies over conventional attributes. Muhammad Z. A. Durrani, Keith Willson, Jingyi Chen, Bryan Tapp, and Jubran Akram Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Z. A. Durrani et al. All rights reserved. Scientific Review on the Ionospheric Absorption and Research Prospects of a Complex Eikonal Model for One-Layer Ionosphere Tue, 05 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/657434/ The present paper conducts a scientific review on ionospheric absorption, extrapolating the research prospects of a complex eikonal model for one-layer ionosphere. As regards the scientific review, here a quasi-longitudinal (QL) approximation for nondeviative absorption is deduced which is more refined than the corresponding equation reported by Davies (1990). As regards the research prospects, a complex eikonal model for one-layer ionosphere is analyzed in depth here, already discussed by Settimi et al. (2013). A simple formula is deduced for a simplified problem. A flat, layered ionospheric medium is considered, without any horizontal gradient. The authors prove that the QL nondeviative amplitude absorption according to the complex eikonal model is more accurate than Rawer’s theory (1976) in the range of middle critical frequencies. Alessandro Settimi, Alessandro Ippolito, Claudio Cesaroni, and Carlo Scotto Copyright © 2014 Alessandro Settimi et al. All rights reserved.