Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hepatology
Volume 2011, Article ID 356919, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/356919
Review Article

Improved Survival with the Patients with Variceal Bleed

Department of Hepatology and Transplant Hepatology, Institute of Liver & Biliary Sciences, New Delhi 110 070, India

Received 13 February 2011; Accepted 12 May 2011

Academic Editor: Deepak Amarapurkar

Copyright © 2011 Praveen Sharma and Shiv K. Sarin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. de Franchis and M. Primignani, “Natural history of portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis,” Clinics in Liver Disease, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 645–663, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. J. Sanyal, R. J. Fontana, A. M. DiBisceglie et al., “The prevalence and risk factors associated with esophageal varices in subjects with hepatitis C and advanced fibrosis,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 64, pp. 855–864, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  3. G. D'Amico, G. Garcia-Tsao, and L. Pagliaro, “Natural history and prognostic indicators of survival in cirrhosis. A systematic review of 118 studies,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 217–231, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. D. Y. Graham and J. L. Smith, “The course of patients after variceal hemorrhage,” Gastroenterology, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 800–809, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. L. Smith and D. Y. Graham, “Variceal hemorrhage: a critical evaluation of survival analysis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 968–973, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. The North Italian Endoscopic Club for the Study and Treatment of Esophageal Varices, “Prediction of the first variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis of the liver and esophageal varices. A prospective multicenter study,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 319, pp. 983–989, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  7. G. D'Amico, A. Morabito, L. Pagliaro, and E. Marubini, “Survival and prognostic indicators in compensated and decompensated cirrhosis,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 468–475, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. M. Nachlas, J. E. O'Neil, and A. J. Campbell, “The life history of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and bleeding esophageal varices,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 141, pp. 10–23, 1955. View at Google Scholar
  9. W. J. Powell Jr. and G. Klatskin, “Duration of survival in patients with Laennec's cirrhosis: influence of alcohol withdrawal, and possible effects of recent changes in general management of the disease,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 406–420, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. C. Pinto, A. Abrantes, A. V. Esteves, H. Almeida, and J. P. Correia, “Long-term prognosis of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and upper gastrointestinal bleeding,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 84, no. 10, pp. 1239–1243, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. J. Garceau and T. C. Chalmers, “The natural history of cirrhosis. I. Survival with esophageal varices,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 268, pp. 469–473, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Carbonell, A. Pauwels, L. Serfaty, O. Fourdan, V. G. Lévy, and R. Poupon, “Improved survival after variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis over the past two decades,” Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 652–659, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. H. B. El-Serag and J. E. Everhart, “Improved survival after variceal hemorrhage over an 11-year period in the Department of Veterans Affairs,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 3566–3573, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Chalasani, C. Kahi, F. Francois et al., “Improved patient survival after acute variceal bleeding: a multicenter, cohort study,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 653–659, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Angermayr, M. Cejna, F. Koenig et al., “Survival in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: ePTFE-covered stent grafts versus bare stents,” Hepatology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1043–1050, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. P. A. McCormick and C. O'Keefe, “Improving prognosis following a first variceal haemorrhage over four decades,” Gut, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 682–685, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. D'Amico, R. de Franchis, and Cooperative Study Group, “Upper digestive bleeding in cirrhosis. Post-therapeutic outcome and prognostic indicators,” Hepatology, vol. 38, pp. 599–612, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  18. K. Thomopoulos, G. Theocharis, K. Mimidis, C. Lampropoulou-Karatza, E. Alexandridis, and V. Nikolopoulou, “Improved survival of patients presenting with acute variceal bleeding. Prognostic indicators of short- and long-term mortality,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 899–904, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. R. de Franchis, “Evolving consensus in portal hypertension. Report of the Baveno IV consensus workshop on methodology of diagnosis and therapy in portal hypertension,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 167–176, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. R. de Franchis, “Revising consensus in portal hypertension: report of the Baveno V consensus workshop on methodology of diagnosis and therapy in portal hypertension,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 762–768, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. D. Kravetz, E. Sikuler, and R. J. Groszmann, “Splanchnic and systemic hemodynamics in portal hypertensive rats during hemorrhage and blood volume restitution,” Gastroenterology, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1232–1240, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Castañeda, J. Morales, R. Lionetti et al., “Effects of blood volume restitution following a portal hypertensive-related bleeding in anesthetized cirrhotic rats,” Hepatology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 821–825, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. B. Bernard, J. D. Grange, E. N. Khac, X. Amiot, P. Opolon, and T. Poynard, “Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a meta-analysis,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1655–1661, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. M. C. Hou, H. C. Lin, T. T. Liu et al., “Antibiotic prophylaxis after endoscopic therapy prevents rebleeding in acute variceal hemorrhage: a randomized trial,” Hepatology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 746–753, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. G. Garcia-Tsao, A. J. Sanyal, N. D. Grace et al., “Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 2086–2102, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. G. Garcia-Tsao, A. J. Sanyal, N. D. Grace, and W. Carey, “Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 922–938, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. A. Pauwels, N. Mostefa-Kara, B. Debenes, E. Degoutte, and V. G. Lévy, “Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with a high risk of infection,” Hepatology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 802–806, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. J. Hsieh, H. C. Lin, S. J. Hwang, M. C. Hou, and F. Y. Lee, “The effect of ciprofloxacin in the prevention of bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis after upper gastrointestinal bleeding,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 962–966, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. C. H. Jun, C. H. Park, W. S. Lee, Y. E. Joo, H. S. Kim, and S. K. Choi, “Antibiotic prophylaxis using third generation cephalosporins can reduce the risk of early rebleeding in the first acute gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage: a prospective randomized study,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 883–890, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Soriano, C. Guarner, A. Tomás et al., “Norfloxacin prevents bacterial infection in cirrhotics with gastrointestinal hemorrhage,” Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 1267–1272, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Goulis, A. Armonis, D. Patch, C. Sabin, L. Greenslade, and A. K. Burroughs, “Bacterial infection is independently associated with failure to control bleeding in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage,” Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1207–1212, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. B. Bernard, J. F. Cadranel, D. Valla, S. Escolano, V. Jarlier, and P. Opolon, “Prognostic significance of bacterial infection in bleeding cirrhotic patients: a prospective study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 1828–1834, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. O. J. Garden, H. Motyl, W. H. Gilmour, R. J. Utley, and D. C. Carter, “Prediction of outcome following acute variceal haemorrhage,” The British Journal of Surgery, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 91–95, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. Gulberg, P. Deibert, A. Ochs, M. Rossle, and A. L. Gerbes, “Prevention of infectious complications after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhotic patients with a single dose of ceftriaxone,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 46, no. 26, pp. 1126–1130, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Lata, J. Juránková, L. Husová et al., “Variceal bleeding in portal hypertension: bacterial infection and comparison of efficacy of intravenous and per-oral application of antibiotics—a randomized trial,” The European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1105–1110, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  36. J. Fernández, L. R. del Arbol, C. Gómez et al., “Norfloxacin vs ceftriaxone in the prophylaxis of infections in patients with advanced cirrhosis and hemorrhage,” Gastroenterology, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 1049–1056, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. K. Soares-Weiser, M. Brezis, R. Tur-Kaspa, and L. Leibovici, “Antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, article CD002907, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  38. N. C. Chavez-Tapia, T. Barrientos-Gutierrez, F. I. Tellez-Avila, K. Soares-Weiser, and M. Uribe, “Antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 9, article CD002907, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  39. M. C. Allison, J. A. Sandoe, R. Tighe, I. A. Simpson, R. J. Hall, and T. S. Elliott, “Antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal endoscopy,” Gut, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 869–880, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. S. Banerjee, B. Shen, T. H. Baron et al., “Antibiotic prophylaxis for GI endoscopy,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 791–798, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. G. D'Amico, L. Pagliaro, and J. Bosch, “Pharmacological treatment of portal hypertension: an evidence-based approach,” Seminars in Liver Disease, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 475–505, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. A. Corley, J. P. Cello, W. Adkisson, W.-F. Ko, and K. Kerlikowske, “Octreotide for acute esophageal variceal bleeding: a meta-analysis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 946–954, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Ioannou, J. Doust, and D. C. Rockey, “Terlipressin for acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, article CD002147, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  44. R. Jutabha, D. M. Jensen, P. Martin, T. Savides, S. H. Han, and J. Gornbein, “Randomized study comparing banding and propranolol to prevent initial variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotics with high-risk esophageal varices,” Gastroenterology, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 870–881, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. D'Amico, L. Pagliaro, G. Pietrosi, and I. Tarantino, “Emergency sclerotherapy versus vasoactive drugs for bleeding oesophageal varices in cirrhotic patients,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, article CD002233, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  46. W. Qureshi, D. G. Adler, R. Davila et al., “ASGE guideline: the role of endoscopy in the management of variceal hemorrhage, updated,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 651–655, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. L. Laine, H. M. El-Newihi, B. Migikovsky, R. Sloane, and F. Garcia, “Endoscopic ligation compared with sclerotherapy for the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. Villanueva, J. Ortiz, M. Sàbat et al., “Somatostatin alone or combined with emergency sclerotherapy in the treatment of acute esophageal variceal bleeding: a prospective randomized trial,” Hepatology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 384–389, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  49. R. Baares, A. Albillos, D. Rincón et al., “Endoscopic treatment versus endoscopic plus pharmacologic treatment for acute variceal bleeding: a meta-analysis,” Hepatology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 609–615, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. R. J. Groszmann, G. Garcia-Tsao, J. Bosch et al., “Beta-blockers to prevent gastroesophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 21, pp. 2254–2261, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  51. C. Ripoll, R. Groszmann, G. Garcia-Tsao et al., “Hepatic venous pressure gradient predicts clinical decompensation in patients with compensated cirrhosis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 481–488, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. E. Moitinho, A. Escorsell, J. C. Bandi et al., “Prognostic value of early measurements of portal pressure in acute variceal bleeding,” Gastroenterology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 626–631, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. B. Ready, A. D. Robertson, J. S. Goff, and W. G. Rector Jr., “Assessment of the risk of bleeding from esophageal varices by continuous monitoring of portal pressure,” Gastroenterology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1403–1410, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. Villanueva, J. Ortiz, J. Minana et al., “Somatostatin treatment and risk stratification by continuous portal pressure monitoring during active variceal bleeding,” Gastroenterology, vol. 121, pp. 110–117, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  55. J. G. Abraldes, C. Villanueva, R. Banares et al., “Hepatic venous pressure gradient and prognosis in patients with acute variceal bleeding treated with pharmacologic and endoscopic therapy,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 48, pp. 229–236, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  56. J. P. Vinel, J. Cassigneul, M. Levade, J. J. Voigt, and J. P. Pascal, “Assessment of short-term prognosis after variceal bleeding in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis by early measurement of portohepatic gradient,” Hepatology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 116–117, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. C. Villanueva, J. Ortiz, J. Miana et al., “Somatostatin treatment and risk stratification by continuous portal pressure monitoring during acute variceal bleeding,” Gastroenterology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 110–117, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. Monescillo, F. Martínez-Lagares, L. Ruiz-Del-Arbol et al., “Influence of portal hypertension and its early decompression by TIPS placement on the outcome of variceal bleeding,” Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 793–801, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. A. Avgerinos, A. Armonis, G. Stefanidis et al., “Sustained rise of portal pressure after sclerotherapy, but not band ligation, in acute variceal bleeding in cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1623–1630, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  60. T. D. Boyer and Z. J. Haskal, “The role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in the management of portal hypertension,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 386–400, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  61. J. C. García-Pagán, K. Caca, C. Bureau et al., “Early use of TIPS in patients with cirrhosis and variceal bleeding,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 25, pp. 2370–2379, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. R. Hubmann, G. Bodlaj, M. Czompo et al., “The use of self-expanding metal stents to treat acute variceal bleeding,” Endoscopy, vol. 38, pp. 896–901, 2006. View at Google Scholar