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International Journal of Hepatology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 137676, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/137676
Review Article

Regulation of Signal Transduction by Glutathione Transferases

Inserm, UMR991, Foie, Métabolismes et Cancer, CHU Pontchaillou, 35033 Rennes, France

Received 9 July 2012; Revised 13 September 2012; Accepted 13 September 2012

Academic Editor: Pascal Loyer

Copyright © 2012 Julie Pajaud et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Glutathione transferases (GST) are essentially known as enzymes that catalyse the conjugation of glutathione to various electrophilic compounds such as chemical carcinogens, environmental pollutants, and antitumor agents. However, this protein family is also involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds which play critical roles in the regulation of signaling pathways. For example, the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the prostaglandin 15-deoxy- ,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) are metabolized by GSTs and these compounds are known to influence the activity of transcription factors and protein kinases involved in stress response, proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated that GSTs are able to interact with different protein partners such as mitogen activated protein kinases (i.e., c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)) which are also involved in cell signaling. New functions of GSTs, including S-glutathionylation of proteins by GSTs and ability to be a nitric oxide (NO) carrier have also been described. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that GST might play a crucial role during normal or cancer cells proliferation or apoptosis.