Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hepatology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 459608, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/459608
Review Article

Acalculous Acute Cholecystitis in Previously Healthy Children: General Overview and Analysis of Pediatric Infectious Cases

1Dipartimento di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliera di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi, 20070 Milano, Italy
2Dipartimento di Chirurgia Generale, Azienda Ospedaliera di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi, 20070 Milano, Italy
3Dipartimento di Pediatria, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 19, 27100 Pavia, Italy

Received 13 July 2015; Revised 25 October 2015; Accepted 29 October 2015

Academic Editor: Dirk Uhlmann

Copyright © 2015 Dimitri Poddighe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. P. Prashanth, B. H. Angadi, S. N. Joshi, P. S. Bagalkot, and M. B. Maralihalli, “Unusual cause of abdominal pain in pediatric emergency medicine,” Pediatric Emergency Care, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 560–561, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Marks, J. Espinosa, and L. J. Hyman, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis in childhood,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 608–611, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. E. Tsakayannis, H. P. W. Kozakewich, and C. W. Lillehei, “Acalculous cholecystitis in children,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 127–131, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. S. Barie and S. R. Eachempati, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 343–357, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. C. Fabian, W. L. Hickerson, and E. C. Mangiante, “Post-traumatic and post-operative acute cholecystitis,” The American Surgeon, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 188–192, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. S. Barie and S. R. Eachempati, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis,” Current Gastroenterology Reports, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 302–309, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Kalliafas, D. W. Ziegler, L. Flancbaum, and P. S. Choban, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis: incidence, risk factors, diagnosis and outcome,” The American Surgeon, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 471–475, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. L. French, L. M. Beaudet, D. A. Benator, C. S. Levy, M. Kass, and J. M. Orenstein, “Cholecystectomy in patients with AIDS: clinicopathologic correlations in 107 cases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 852–858, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. C. Owen and R. Jain, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis,” Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 99–104, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. L. Huffman and S. Schenker, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis: a review,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Poddighe, G. Cagnoli, N. Mastricci, and P. Bruni, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis associated with severe EBV hepatitis in an immunocompetent child,” BMJ Case Reports, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. H. Lee, Y. E. No, Y. J. Lee, J. Y. Hwang, J. W. Lee, and J. H. Park, “Acalculous diffuse gallbladder wall thickening in children,” Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 98–103, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. R. L. Trowbridge, N. K. Rutkowski, and K. G. Shojania, “Does this patient have acute cholecystitis?” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 1, pp. 80–86, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. L. Ternberg and J. P. Keating, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis. Complication of other illnesses in childhood,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 543–547, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. V. S. Parithivel, P. H. Gerst, S. Banerjee, V. Parikh, and E. Albu, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis in young patients without predisposing factors,” The American Surgeon, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 366–368, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. H. Neiderhiser, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis induced by lysophosphatidylcholine,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 559–563, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Kouroumalis, D. Hopwood, P. E. Ross, G. Milne, and I. A. Bouchier, “Gallbladder epithelial acid hydrolases in human cholecystitis,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 179–191, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Hakala, P. J. O. Nuutinen, E. T. Ruokonen, and E. Alhava, “Microangiopathy in acute acalculous cholecystitis,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 1249–1252, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Imamoglu, H. Sarihan, A. Sari, and A. Ahmetoglu, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis in children: diagnosis and treatment,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 36–39, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. B. Chirdan, D. Iya, V. M. Ramyil, A. Z. Sule, A. F. Uba, and B. T. Ugwu, “Acalculous cholecystitis in Nigerian children,” Pediatric Surgery International, vol. 19, no. 1-2, pp. 65–67, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Gnassingbé, G. Katakoa, K. K. Kanassoua et al., “Acute cholecystitis from typhic origin in children,” African Journal of Paediatric Surgery, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 108–111, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Menendez, E. T. Arena, J. A. Guttman et al., “Salmonella infection of gallbladder epithelial cells drives local inflammation and injury in a model of acute typhoid fever,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 200, no. 11, pp. 1703–1713, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. A. McChesney, P. G. Northup, and S. J. Bickston, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis associated with systemic sepsis and visceral arterial hypoperfusion: a case series and review of pathophysiology,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1960–1967, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Ashley, A. Vade, and M. Challapalli, “Brucellosis with acute acalculous cholecystitis,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1112–1113, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. O. Ciftci, A. Karnak, and F. C. Tanyel, “The association of hepatitis A virus infection, acalculous cholecystitis, and blunt abdominal trauma: a diagnostic challenge,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 92–94, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Croteau, R. D. Signer, and M. S. Chaet, “Acalculous cholecystitis in a two year old,” Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 183–185, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W.-T. Lo, C.-C. Wang, and M.-L. Chu, “Acute septicaemic acalculous cholecystitis complicated by empyema caused by Salmonella group D in a previously healthy child,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 161, no. 11, pp. 575–577, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. V. Batra, J. Y. Ang, and B. I. Asmar, “Staphylococcal acalculous cholecystitis in a child,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 206–208, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Garel, J. Lucaya, and J. Piqueras, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis owing to Salmonella sepsis,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 905–906, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. A. Saha, P. Batra, K. Y. Vilhekar, and P. Chaturvedi, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis in a child with Plasmodium falciparum malaria,” Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 141–142, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. Axelrod and S. P. Karakas, “Acalculous cholecystitis and abscess as a manifestation of typhoid fever,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 37, no. 2, article 237, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. S. Kuttiat and U. Kohli, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis associated with malarial infection in children: report of two cases,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 59–61, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Lagona, F. Sharifi, A. Voutsioti, A. Mavri, M. Markouri, and A. Attilakos, “Epstein-barr virus infectious mononucleosis associated with acute acalculous cholecystitis,” Infection, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 118–119, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M.-C. Anthoine-Milhomme, H. Chappuy, and G. Chéron, “Acute acalculous cholecysatitis in a child returning from the Ivory Coast,” Pediatric Emergency Care, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 242–243, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Prassouli, J. Panagiotou, M. Vakaki et al., “Acute acalculous cholecystitis as the initial presentation of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. e11–e13, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Gora-Gebka, A. Liberek, W. Bako, A. Szarszewski, B. Kamińska, and M. Korzon, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis of viral etiology—a rare condition in children?” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. e25–e27, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Kumar, A. M. Taksande, and K. Y. Vilhekar, “Acalculous cholecystitis by P. falciparum in a 3-year old child,” Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 76–77, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Attilakos, A. Prassouli, G. Hadjigeorgiou et al., “Acute acalculous cholecystitis in children with Epstein-Barr virus infection: a role for Gilbert's syndrome?” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. e161–e164, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. R. Suresh, R. Srikrishna, S. K. Nanda, V. Annam, K. Sunil, and B. Arjun, “Acalculous gallbladder distension in a young child due to HAV infection: diagnostic dilemma,” Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 316–318, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. J. de Souza, L. C. Braga, N. D. S. M. Rocha, and R. R. Tavares, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis in a teenager with hepatitis A virus infection: a case report,” Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 74–76, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Arroud, S. Benmiloud, B. Oudghiri, M. A. Afifi, M. Hida, and Y. Bouabdallah, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis revealing hepatitis A virus infection in children,” Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 15, no. 4, p. 277, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Ö. Herek, N. Çördük, D. Herek, and S. Bagci, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis due to hepatitis A infection in a child: a rare cause of acute abdomen,” Annals of African Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 193–195, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. P. Newcombe, P. E. A. Gray, P. Palasanthiran, and T. L. Smiling, “Q fever with transient antiphospholipid antibodies associated with cholecystitis and splenic infarction,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 415–416, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. Kim, H. R. Yang, J. S. Moon, J. Y. Chang, and J. S. Ko, “Epstein-Barr virus infection with acute acalculous cholecystitis,” Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 57–60, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. A. Fretzayas, M. Moustaki, A. Attilakos, T. Brozou, and P. Nicolaidou, “Acalculous cholecystitis or biliary dyskinesia for Epstein-Barr virus gallbladder involvement?” Prague Medical Report, vol. 115, no. 1-2, pp. 67–72, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. F. Alkhoury, D. Diaz, and J. Hidalgo, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) in the pediatric population associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection. Case report and review of the literature,” International Journal of Surgery Case Reports, vol. 11, pp. 50–52, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. A. Pawłowska-Kamieniak, A. Mroczkowska-Juchkiewicz, D. Gołyska, K. Kominek, and E. Pac-Kozuchowska, “Acute acalculous cholecystitis in a 17-year-old girl with Epstein-Barr virus infection,” Gastroenterology Review, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 54–56, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. Z. A. Kanafani, A. I. Sharara, I. A. Issa, and S. S. Kanj, “Acute calculous cholecystitis associated with brucellosis: a report of two cases and review of the literature,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, no. 11-12, pp. 927–930, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. T. Miranda, A. E. Gimeno, T. F. Rodriguez, J. J. D. Arriba, D. G. Olmo, and J. Solera, “Acute cholecystitis caused by Brucella melitensis: case report and review,” Journal of Infection, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 77–78, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. G. A. Kullak-Ublick, U. Beuers, and G. Paumgartner, “Hepatobiliary transport,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 32, supplement 1, pp. 3–18, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Krawczyk, F. Grünhage, M. Langhirt, R. M. Bohle, and F. Lammert, “Prolonged cholestasis triggered by hepatitis a virus infection and variants of the hepatocanalicular phospholipid and bile salt transporters,” Annals of Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 710–714, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. P. Kofteridis, M. Koulentaki, A. Valachis et al., “Epstein Barr Virus hepatitis,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 73–76, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Trauner, P. Fickert, and R. E. Stauber, “Inflammation-induced cholestasis,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 946–959, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. Iaria, L. Arena, G. Di Maio et al., “Acute acalculous cholecystitis during the course of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection: a new case and a review of the literature,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 391–395, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus