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International Journal of Hepatology
Volume 2015, Article ID 852968, 10 pages
Review Article

Chronic Hepatitis C: An Overview of Evidence on Epidemiology and Management from a Brazilian Perspective

1Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Laboratory of Clinical Research on STD/AIDS, Avenida Brasil 4365, 21040-900 Manguinhos, RJ, Brazil
2Institute of Health Research, Peninsula Technology Assessment Group (PenTAG), Evidence Synthesis and Modelling for Health Improvement (ESMI), University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, St Luke’s Campus, South Cloisters, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK

Received 31 July 2015; Revised 3 November 2015; Accepted 11 November 2015

Academic Editor: Maria Buti

Copyright © 2015 Rodolfo Castro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chronic hepatitis C remains one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and presents a variable natural history ranging from minimal changes to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis and its complications, such as development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Approximately, 1.45 million people are estimated to be infected by HCV in Brazil representing a major public health issue. The aim of this paper was to review the epidemiology and management of chronic hepatitis C from a Brazilian perspective. The management of chronic hepatitis C has been challenged by the use of noninvasive methods to stage liver fibrosis as an alternative to liver biopsy and the high cost of new interferon-free antiviral treatments. Moreover, the need of cost-effectiveness analysis in hepatitis C and the recent changes in treatment protocols were discussed.