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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2012, Article ID 392657, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/392657
Clinical Study

Causes of Resistant Hypertension Detected by a Standardized Algorithm

Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil

Received 27 September 2012; Revised 5 November 2012; Accepted 10 December 2012

Academic Editor: Maria Czarina Acelajado

Copyright © 2012 Livia Beatriz Santos Limonta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Resistant hypertension (RH) is characterized by blood pressure above 140 × 90 mm Hg, despite the use, in appropriate doses, of three antihypertensive drug classes, including a diuretic, or the need of four classes to control blood pressure. Resistant hypertension patients are under a greater risk of presenting secondary causes of hypertension and may be benefited by therapeutical approach for this diagnosis. However, the RH is currently little studied, and more knowledge of this clinical condition is necessary. In addition, few studies had evaluated this issue in emergent countries. Therefore, we proposed the analysis of specific causes of RH by using a standardized protocol in Brazilian patients diagnosed in a center for the evaluation and treatment of hypertension. The management of these patients was conducted with the application of a preformulated protocol which aimed at the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension in each patient through management standardization. The data obtained suggest that among patients with resistant hypertension there is a higher prevalence of secondary hypertension, than that observed in general hypertensive ones and a higher prevalence of sleep apnea as well. But there are a predominance of obesity, noncompliance with diet, and frequent use of hypertensive drugs. These latter factors are likely approachable at primary level health care, since that detailed anamneses directed to the causes of resistant hypertension are applied.