Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2012, Article ID 453465, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/453465
Review Article

Rumination as a Mediator of Chronic Stress Effects on Hypertension: A Causal Model

1Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, 315 HHD East, University Park, PA 16802, USA
2Clinical Health and Neuropsychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
3Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
4Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
5Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4

Received 4 September 2011; Accepted 14 November 2011

Academic Editor: Simon L. Bacon

Copyright © 2012 William Gerin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Rosengren, S. Hawken, S. Ôunpuu et al., “Association of psychosocial risk factors with risk of acute myocardial infarction in 11 119 cases and 13 648 controls from 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study,” The Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9438, pp. 953–962, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. H. Bosma, R. Peter, J. Siegrist, and M. Marmot, “Two alternative job stress models and the risk of coronary heart disease,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 68–74, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Kivimäki, M. Virtanen, M. Elovainio, A. Kouvonen, A. Väänänen, and J. Vahtera, “Work stress in the etiology of coronary heart disease—a meta-analysis,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 431–442, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  4. K. Orth-Gomér, S. P. Wamala, M. Horsten, K. Schenck-Gustafsson, N. Schneiderman, and M. A. Mittleman, “Marital stress worsens prognosis in women with coronary heart disease: the stockholm female coronary risk study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 284, no. 23, pp. 3008–3014, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. E. Dimsdale, “Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 13, pp. 1237–1246, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Chandola, A. Britton, E. Brunner et al., “Work stress and coronary heart disease: what are the mechanisms?” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 640–648, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Lee, G. A. Colditz, L. F. Berkman, and I. Kawachi, “Caregiving and risk of coronary heart disease in U.S. women: a prospective study,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 113–119, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. P. Vitaliano, J. M. Scanlan, J. Zhang, M. V. Savage, I. B. Hirsch, and I. C. Siegler, “A path model of chronic stress, the metabolic syndrome, and coronary heart disease,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 418–435, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. W. Burns, R. Friedman, and E. S. Katkin, “Anger expression, hostility, anxiety, and patterns of cardiac reactivity to stress,” Behavioral Medicine, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 71–78, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Suls, C. K. Wan, and P. T. Costa Jr., “Relationship of trait anger to resting blood pressure: a meta-analysis,” Health Psychology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 444–456, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. A. Everson, D. E. Goldberg, G. A. Kaplan, J. Julkunen, and J. T. Salonen, “Anger expression and incident hypertension,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 730–735, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Sherwood, K. Johnson, J. A. Blumenthal, and A. L. Hinderliter, “Endothelial function and hemodynamic responses during mental stress,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 365–370, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. A. Neumann, S. R. Waldstein, J. J. Sollers, J. F. Thayer, and J. D. Sorkin, “Hostility and distraction have differential influences on cardiovascular recovery from anger recall in women,” Health Psychology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 631–640, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Steil and A. Ehlers, “Dysfunctional meaning of posttraumatic intrusions in chronic PTSD,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 537–558, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. M. Glynn, N. Christenfeld, and W. Gerin, “Recreating cardiovascular responses with rumination: the effects of a delay between harassment and its recall,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 135–140, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Selye, The Stress of Life, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1956.
  17. R. S. Lazarus and S. Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1984.
  18. R. D. Lane, “Neural substrates of implicit and explicit emotional processes: a unifying framework for psychosomatic medicine,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 214–231, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. A. Bargh and T. L. Chartrand, “The unbearable automaticity of being,” American Psychologist, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 462–479, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Dijksterhuis and L. F. Nordgren, “A theory of unconscious thought,” Perspectives on Psychological Science, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 95–109, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. F. Brosschot, “Markers of chronic stress: prolonged physiological activation and (un)conscious perseverative cognition,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 46–50, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. G. Hull, L. B. Slone, K. B. Meteyer, and A. R. Matthews, “The nonconsciousness of self-consciousness,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 406–424, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. R. Levy, J. M. Hausdorff, R. Hencke, and J. Y. Wei, “Reducing cardiovascular stress with positive self-stereotypes of aging,” Journals of Gerontology: Series B, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. P205–P213, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. F. Brosschot and W. Hoeben, “Negative emotional processing without awareness increases blood pressure,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 72, p. A-11, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  25. S. Pieper, J. F. Brosschot, R. van der Leeden, and J. F. Thayer, “Prolonged cardiac effects of momentary assessed stressful events and worry episodes,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 570–577, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. F. Brosschot, E. van Dijk, and J. F. Thayer, “Daily worry is related to low heart rate variability during waking and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Sakakibara, T. Kanematsu, F. Yasuma, and J. Hayano, “Impact of real-world stress on cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep in daily life,” Psychophysiology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 667–670, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Hall, R. Vasko, D. Buysse et al., “Acute stress affects heart rate variability during sleep,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 56–62, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Yoshino and K. Matsuoka, “Effect of mood during daily life on autonomic nervous activity balance during subsequent sleep,” Autonomic Neuroscience, vol. 150, no. 1-2, pp. 147–149, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. F. Brosschot, B. Verkuil, and J. F. Thayer, “Conscious and unconscious perseverative cognition: is a large part of prolonged physiological activity due to unconscious stress?” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 407–416, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Amat, M. V. Baratta, E. Paul, S. T. Bland, L. R. Watkins, and S. F. Maier, “Medial prefrontal cortex determines how stressor controllability affects behavior and dorsal raphe nucleus,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 365–371, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. F. Thayer and E. Sternberg, “Beyond heart rate variability: vagal regulation of allostatic systems,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1088, pp. 361–372, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. F. Thayer and R. D. Lane, “A model of neurovisceral integration in emotion regulation and dysregulation,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 201–216, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. F. Thayer and J. F. Brosschot, “Psychosomatics and psychopathology: looking up and down from the brain,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1050–1058, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. F. Thayer, B. H. Friedman, and T. D. Borkovec, “Autonomic characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder and worry,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 255–266, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. J. Shook, R. H. Fazio, and J. R. Eiser, “Attitude generalization: similarity, valence, and extremity,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 641–647, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Lyubomirsky, N. D. Caldwell, and S. Nolen-Hoeksema, “Effects of ruminative and distracting responses to depressed mood on retrieval of autobiographical memories,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 166–177, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Nolen-Hoeksema, “Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 569–582, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. M. B. Mellings and L. E. Alden, “Cognitive processes in social anxiety: the effects of self-focus, rumination and anticipatory processing,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 243–257, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Nolen-Hoeksema, “The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 504–511, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. L. Rusting and S. Nolen-Hoeksema, “Regulating responses to anger: effects of rumination and distraction on angry mood,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 790–803, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. G. Sukhodolsky, A. Golub, and E. N. Cromwell, “Development and validation of the anger rumination scale,” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 689–700, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. K. Thomsen, M. Y. Mehlsen, S. Christensen, and R. Zachariae, “Rumination—relationship with negative mood and sleep quality,” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1293–1301, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Nolen-Hoeksema, J. Morrow, and B. L. Fredrickson, “Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 20–28, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Pyszczynski and J. Greenberg, “Self-regulatory perseveration and the depressive self-focusing style: a self-awareness theory of reactive depression,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 122–138, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. C. Blagden and M. G. Craske, “Effects of active and passive rumination and distraction: a pilot replication with anxious mood,” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 243–252, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. N. Just and L. B. Alloy, “The response styles theory of depression: tests and an extension of the theory,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 221–229, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. J. Zawadzki, J. E. Graham, and W. Gerin, “Rumination and anxiety mediate the effect of loneliness on depression and sleep quality on college students,” Health Psychology. In press.
  49. W. Gerin, K. W. Davidson, N. J. S. Christenfeld, T. Goyal, and J. E. Schwartz, “The role of angry rumination and distraction in blood pressure recovery from emotional arousal,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 64–72, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. M. Glynn, N. Christenfeld, and W. Gerin, “The role of rumination in recovery from reactivity: cardiovascular consequences of emotional states,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 714–726, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. B. L. Key, T. S. Campbell, S. L. Bacon, and W. Gerin, “The influence of trait and state rumination on cardiovascular recovery from a negative emotional stressor,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 237–248, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Neumann, S. R. Waldenstein, J. J. Sollers, J. F. Thayer, and D. Sorkin, “The relation of hostility, rumination, and distraction on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery responses to anger,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 631–640, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  53. A. Schwartz, W. Gerin, N. Christenfeld, L. Glynn, K. Davidson, and T. Pickering, “Effects of an anger recall task on post-stress rumination and blood pressure recovery in men and women,” Psychophysiology, vol. 37, pp. S12–S13, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  54. S. Suchday, M. M. Carter, C. K. Ewart, K. T. Larkin, and O. Desiderato, “Anger cognitions and cardiovascular recovery following provocation,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 319–341, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. Chambers and K. Davidson, “Destructive anger rumination predicts resting blood pressure in older but not younger participants,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 22, p. S204, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  56. B. E. Hogan and W. Linden, “Anger response styles and blood pressure: at least don't ruminate about It!,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 38–49, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. Oseitutu, P. Sohn, K. Davidson et al., “Effect of trait rumination on ambulatory blood pressure,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 23, p. 169, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  58. C. Ottaviani, D. Shapiro, and L. Fitzgerald, “Rumination in the laboratory: what happens when you go back to everyday life?” Psychophysiology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 453–461, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. R. M. Sapolsky, Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers: An Updated Guide to Stress, Stress Related Diseases, and Coping, Holt Paperbacks, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2004.
  60. K. Björklund, L. Lind, B. Zethelius, B. Andrén, and H. Lithell, “Isolated ambulatory hypertension predicts cardiovascular morbidity in elderly men,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 9, pp. 1297–1302, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. S. McEwen and E. Stellar, “Stress and the individual: mechanisms leading to disease,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 153, no. 18, pp. 2093–2101, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. T. E. Seeman, B. H. Singer, J. W. Rowe, R. I. Horwitz, and B. S. McEwen, “Price of adaptation—allostatic load and its health consequences. MacArthur studies of successful aging,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 157, no. 19, pp. 2259–2268, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. S. McEwen and T. Seeman, “Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress. Elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 896, pp. 30–47, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. B. S. McEwen, “Seminars in medicine of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center: protective and damaging effects of stress mediators,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 338, no. 3, pp. 171–179, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. F. Brosschot, S. Pieper, and J. F. Thayer, “Expanding stress theory: prolonged activation and perseverative cognition,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1043–1049, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. Writing Committee for the ENRICHD Investigators, “Effects of treating depression and low perceived social support on clinical events after myocardial infarction: the enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease patients (ENRICHD) randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 23, pp. 3106–3116, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. C. V. Witvliet, T. E. Ludwig, and K. L. V. Laan, “Granting forgiveness or harboring grudges: implications for emotion, physiology, and health,” Psychological Science, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 117–123, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. M. Smyth and K. E. Heron, “Health psychology,” in Handbook of Research Methods for Studying Daily Life, M. Mehl and T. Conner, Eds., Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  69. C. K. Ewart, G. J. Elder, J. M. Smyth, M. J. Sliwinski, and R. S. Jorgensen, “Do agonistic motives matter more than anger? Three studies of cardiovascular risk in adolescents,” Health Psychology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 510–524, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar