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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2012, Article ID 485812, 6 pages
Research Article

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Distributions of the Ankle-Brachial Index among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

1Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Punjab, Amritsar 143005, India
2Carewell Heart and Super Speciality Hospital, Amritsar, India

Received 2 May 2012; Revised 15 June 2012; Accepted 15 June 2012

Academic Editor: Roberto Pontremoli

Copyright © 2012 Badaruddoza Doza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. The aim of present study is to observe the association between the levels of ankle-brachial index (ABI) and cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north India. A cross-sectional study was carried out at a centre for heart and diabetic clinic in the state of Punjab on 1121 subjects (671 males and 450 females) with type 2 diabetes mellitus. History of symptoms related to cardiovascular diseases was noted, and blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) was measured using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector. Subjects with ABI ≤0.9 and ≥1.30 were classified as having low and high ABI, respectively. Females had a higher BMI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ). Whereas, males had higher diastolic blood pressure and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The differences of systolic blood pressure and ankle-brachial index were not found significant between the sexes. The prevalence of low ABI (<0.9) was 4.47% in men and 4.67% in women and high ABI (≥1.30) was prevalent in 14% of men and 10.45% of women. Age, BMI, baPWV, and blood pressures were significantly associated with ABI value in both sexes. The results suggested that the ABI might be used as a strong indicator for cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic subjects.