Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2012, Article ID 627278, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/627278
Review Article

Erectile Dysfunction and Hypertension: Impact on Cardiovascular Risk and Treatment

1Department of Clinical Medicine, State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
2Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, Rua Vinte e Oito de Setembro, 77 sala 329, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Received 3 November 2011; Revised 15 February 2012; Accepted 24 February 2012

Academic Editor: Wille Oigman

Copyright © 2012 Valter Javaroni and Mario Fritsch Neves. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. NIH Consensus Conference. Impotence, “NIH consensus development panel on impotence,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 270, no. 1, pp. 83–90, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  2. W. A. Fisher, R. C. Rosen, M. Mollen et al., “Improving the sexual quality of life of couples affected by erectile dysfunction: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vardenafil,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 699–708, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. W. Lewis, K. S. Fugl-Meyer, G. Corona et al., “Definitions/epidemiology/risk factors for sexual dysfunction,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1598–1607, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. Jackson, “Prevention of cardiovascular disease by the early identification of erectile dysfunction,” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 20, no. 2, supplement, pp. S9–S14, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. A. Feldman, I. Goldstein, D. G. Hatzichristou, R. J. Krane, and J. B. McKinlay, “Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study,” Journal of Urology, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. D. Moreira Jr., C. H. N. Abdo, E. B. Torres, C. F. L. Lôbo, and J. A. S. Fittipaldi, “Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction: results of the Brazilian study of sexual behavior,” Urology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 583–588, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. G. W. Speel, H. Van Langen, E. J. H. Meuleman, and L. Cormio, “The risk of coronary heart disease in men with erectile dysfunction,” European Urology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 366–371, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. I. Goldstein, T. F. Lue, H. Padma-Nathan, R. C. Rosen, W. D. Steersand, and P. A. Wicker, “Oral sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil Study Group,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 338, no. 20, pp. 1397–1404, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  9. C. C. Carson, “Erectile dysfunction in the 21st century: whom we can treat, whom we cannot treat and patient education,” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 14, no. 1, supplement, pp. S29–S34, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Jackson, N. Boon, I. Eardley et al., “Erectile dysfunction and coronary artery disease prediction: evidence-based guidance and consensus,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 848–857, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. Hatzimouratidis, E. Amar, I. Eardley et al., “Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction: erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation,” European Urology, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 804–814, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  12. H. Solomon, J. W. Man, and G. Jackson, “Erectile dysfunction and the cardiovascular patient: endothelial dysfunction is the common denominator,” Heart, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 251–254, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Montorsi, P. M. Ravagnani, S. Galli et al., “Association between erectile dysfunction and coronary artery disease: matching the right target with the right test in the right patient,” European Urology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 721–731, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Aversa, R. Bruzziches, D. Francomano, M. Natali, P. Gareri, and G. Spera, “Endothelial dysfunction and erectile dysfunction in the aging man,” International Journal of Urology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 38–47, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. Fusco, E. Razzoli, C. Imbimbo, A. Rossi, P. Verze, and V. Mirone, “A new era in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: chronic phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition,” British Journal of Urology International, vol. 105, no. 12, pp. 1634–1639, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. M. Miner, “Erectile dysfunction: a harbinger or consequence: does its detection lead to a window of curability?” Journal of Andrology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 125–134, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. R. Virag, P. Bouilly, and D. Frydman, “Is impotence an arterial disorder? A study of arterial risk factors in 440 impotent men,” Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8422, pp. 181–184, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  18. M. Bocchio, P. Scarpelli, S. Necozione et al., “Penile duplex pharmaco-ultrasonography of cavernous arteries in men with erectile dysfunction and generalized atherosclerosis,” International Journal of Andrology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 496–501, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. W. Kim, J. S. Paick, D. W. Park, I. H. Chae, and B. H. Oh, “Potential predictors of asymptomatic ischemic heart disease in patients with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction,” Urology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 441–445, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Montorsi, F. Montorsi, and C. C. Schulman, “Is erectile dysfunction the "tip of the lceberg" of a systemic vascular disorder?” European Urology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 352–354, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. F. Lue, “Erectile dysfunction,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 342, no. 24, pp. 1802–1813, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. F. Lue, F. Giuliano, F. Montorsi et al., “Summary on the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in men,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 6–23, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. B. Moreland, “Pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction: the contributions of trabecular structure to function and the role of functional antagonism,” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. S39–S46, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. I. Sáenz de Tejada, J. Angulo, S. Cellek et al., “Pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 26–39, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Bocchio, G. Desideri, P. Scarpelli et al., “Endothelial cell activation in men with erectile dysfunction without cardiovascular risk factors and overt vascular damage,” Journal of Urology, vol. 171, no. 4, pp. 1601–1604, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. A. Inman, J. L. S. Sauver, D. J. Jacobson et al., “A population-based, longitudinal study of erectile dysfunction and future coronary artery disease,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 109–113, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. S. Wierzbicki, H. Solomon, P. J. Lumb, K. Lyttle, M. Lambert-Hammill, and G. Jackson, “Asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels correlate with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with erectile dysfunction,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 185, no. 2, pp. 421–425, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Aversa, M. Proietti, R. Bruzziches, F. Salsano, and G. Spera, “The penile vasculature in systemic sclerosis: a duplex ultrasound study,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 554–558, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. B. Araujo, S. A. Hall, P. Ganz et al., “Does erectile dysfunction contribute to cardiovascular disease risk prediction beyond the framingham risk score?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 350–356, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. G. Bacon, M. A. Mittleman, I. Kawachi, E. Giovannucci, D. B. Glasser, and E. B. Rimm, “A prospective study of risk factors for erectile dysfunction,” Journal of Urology, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 217–221, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Gratzke, J. Angulo, K. Chitaley et al., “Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 445–475, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. U. Taskin, O. Yigit, E. Acioglu, M. Aricigil, G. Toktas, and Y. Guzelhan, “Erectile dysfunction in severe sleep apnea patients and response to CPAP,” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 134–139, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Burchardt, T. Burchardt, L. Baer et al., “Hypertension is associated with severe erectile dysfunction,” Journal of Urology, vol. 164, no. 4, pp. 1188–1191, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. H. Grimm Jr., G. A. Grandits, R. J. Prineas et al., “Long-term effects on sexual function of five antihypertensive drugs and nutritional hygienic treatment in hypertensive men and women: treatment of mild hypertension study (TOMHS),” Hypertension, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 8–14, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. F. Newman and H. Marcus, “Erectile dysfunction in diabetes and hypertension,” Urology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 135–137, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Jensen, A. Lendorf, H. Stimpel, J. Frost, H. Ibsen, and P. Rosenkilde, “The prevalence and etiology of impotence in 101 male hypertensive outpatients,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 271–275, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. A. Giuliano, A. Leriche, E. O. Jaudinot, and A. S. De Gendre, “Prevalence of erectile dysfunction among 7689 patients with diabetes or hypertension, or both,” Urology, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1196–1201, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Doumas, A. Tsakiris, S. Douma et al., “Factors affecting the increased prevalence of erectile dysfunction in greek hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects,” Journal of Andrology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 469–477, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Mittawae, A. R. El-Nashaar, A. Fouda, M. Magdy, and R. Shamloul, “Incidence of erectile dysfunction in 800 hypertensive patients: a multicenter Egyptian national study,” Urology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 575–578, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. T. Chang, C. M. Chu, J. T. Hsu, P. C. Lin, and J. J. Shee, “Surveillance of cardiovascular risk factors for outpatients in different erectile dysfunction severity,” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 116–121, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. I. M. Thompson, C. M. Tangen, P. J. Goodman, J. L. Probstfield, C. M. Moinpour, and C. A. Coltman, “Erectile dysfunction and subsequent cardiovascular disease,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 294, no. 23, pp. 2996–3002, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Baumhäkel, N. Schlimmer, M. Kratz, G. Hacket, G. Jackson, and M. Böhm, “Cardiovascular risk, drugs and erectile function—a systematic analysis,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 289–298, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. A. Silvestri, P. Galetta, E. Cerquetani et al., “Report of erectile dysfunction after therapy with beta-blockers is related to patient knowledge of side effects and is reversed by placebo,” European Heart Journal, vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1928–1932, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Böhm, M. Baumhäkel, J. L. Probstfield et al., “Sexual function, satisfaction, and association of erectile dysfunction with cardiovascular disease and risk factors in cardiovascular high-risk patients: substudy of the ongoing telmisartan alone and in combination with Ramipril global endpoint trial/telmisartan randomized assessment study in ACE-intolerant subjects with cardiovascular disease (ONTARGET/TRANSCEND),” American Heart Journal, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 94–101, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Bansal, “Sexual dysfunction in hypertensive men. A critical review of the literature,” Hypertension, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. I. Erden, H. Ozhan, S. Ordu, S. Yalcin, O. Caglar, and A. Kayikci, “The effect of non-dipper pattern of hypertension on erectile dysfunction,” Blood Pressure, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 249–253, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. A. Derby, M. M. Barbour, A. L. Hume, and J. B. McKinlay, “Drug therapy and prevalence of erectile dysfunction in the Massachusetts male aging study cohort,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 676–683, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Böhm, M. Baumhäkel, K. Teo et al., “Erectile dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events in high-risk patients receiving telmisartan, ramipril, or both: the ongoing telmisartan alone and in combination with ramipril global endpoint trial/telmisartan randomized assessment study in ace intolerant subjects with cardiovascular disease (ontarget/transcend) Trials,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 12, pp. 1439–1446, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Baumhäkel, N. Schlimmer, K. Büyükafşar, O. Arikan, and M. Böhm, “Nebivolol, but not metoprolol, improves endothelial function of the corpus cavernosum in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 325, no. 3, pp. 818–823, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. J. E. Toblli, G. Cao, G. Casas, and O. N. Mazza, “In vivo and in vitro effects of nebivolol on penile structures in hypertensive rats,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1226–1232, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. Fogari and A. Zoppi, “Effect of antihypertensive agents on quality of life in the elderly,” Drugs and Aging, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 377–393, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. R. Düsing, “Sexual dysfunction in male patients with hypertension: influence of antihypertensive drugs,” Drugs, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 773–786, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Y. Jeremy, G. D. Angelini, M. Khan et al., “Platelets, oxidant stress and erectile dysfunction: an hypothesis,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 50–54, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Taddei, A. Virdis, P. Mattei et al., “Aging and endothelial function in normotensive subjects and patients with essential hypertension,” Circulation, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 1981–1987, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. Agarwal, K. C. Nandipati, R. K. Sharma, C. D. Zippe, and R. Raina, “Role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiological mechanism of erectile dysfunction,” Journal of Andrology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 335–347, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. Jin, G. Lagoda, R. Leite, R. C. Webb, and A. L. Burnett, “NADPH oxidase activation: a mechanism of hypertension-associated erectile dysfunction,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 544–551, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Behr-Roussel, J. Bernabe, S. Compagnie et al., “Distinct mechanisms implicated in atherosclerosis-induced erectile dysfunction in rabbits,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 162, no. 2, pp. 355–362, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. F. Perticone, A. Sciacqua, R. Maio et al., “Asymmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine, and endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 518–523, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. C. Romero and J. F. Reckelhoff, “Role of angiotensin and oxidative stress in essential hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 943–949, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. R. Kloner, “Erectile dysfunction and hypertension,” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 296–302, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P. Montorsi, P. M. Ravagnani, S. Galli et al., “Association between erectile dysfunction and coronary artery disease. Role of coronary clinical presentation and extent of coronary vessels involvement: the COBRA trial,” European Heart Journal, vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 2632–2639, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Vlachopoulos, K. Aznaouridis, N. Ioakeimidis et al., “Arterial function and intima-media thickness in hypertensive patients with erectile dysfunction,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1829–1836, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. Solomon, J. W. Man, A. S. Wierzbicki, and G. Jackson, “Relation of erectile dysfunction to angiographic coronary artery disease,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 230–231, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. L. M. Prisant, D. H. Loebl, and J. L. Waller, “Arterial elasticity and erectile dysfunction in hypertensive men,” Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 768–774, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. D. Chung, Y. K. Chen, H. C. Lin, and H. C. Lin, “Increased risk of stroke among men with erectile dysfunction: a nationwide population-based study,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 240–246, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. F. Luscher and M. Barton, “Biology of the endothelium,” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 12, supplement, pp. II3–II10, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  67. D. R. Kaiser, K. Billups, C. Mason, R. Wetterling, J. L. Lundberg, and A. J. Bank, “Impaired brachial artery endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation in men with erectile dysfunction and no other clinical cardiovascular disease,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 179–184, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. J. Bivalacqua, T. Liu, B. Musicki, H. C. Champion, and A. L. Burnett, “Endothelial nitric oxide synthase keeps erection regulatory function balance in the penis,” European Urology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1732–1740, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. L. Burnett, “Nitric oxide in the penis: physiology and pathology,” Journal of Urology, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 320–324, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. H. Kim, M. L. Klyachkin, E. Svendsen, M. G. Davies, P. O. Hagen, and C. C. Carson III, “Experimental hypercholesterolemia in rabbits induces cavernosal atherosclerosis with endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunction,” Journal of Urology, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 198–205, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. C. Rosen, A. Riley, G. Wagner, I. H. Osterloh, J. Kirkpatrick, and A. Mishra, “The international index of erectile function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction,” Urology, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 822–830, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. C. Rosen, J. C. Cappelleri, M. D. Smith, J. Lipsky, and B. M. Peñ, “Development and evaluation of an abridged, 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) as a diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction,” International Journal of Impotence Research, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 319–326, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. G. Jackson, R. C. Rosen, R. A. Kloner, and J. B. Kostis, “The second Princeton consensus on sexual dysfunction and cardiac risk: new guidelines for sexual medicine,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 28–36, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. B. Kostis, G. Jackson, R. Rosen et al., “Sexual dysfunction and cardiac risk (the Second Princeton Consensus Conference),” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 85M–93M, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  75. C. Gazzaruso, S. Giordanetti, E. De Amici et al., “Relationship between erectile dysfunction and silent myocardial ischemia in apparently uncomplicated type 2 diabetic patients,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. Stern, “Symptoms other than chest pain may be important in the diagnosis of “silent ischemia,” or “the sounds of silence”,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 24, pp. e435–437, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. Debusk, Y. Drory, I. Goldstein et al., “Management of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease: recommendations of the Princeton consensus panel,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 62–68, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. M. Zusman, A. Morales, D. B. Glasser, and I. H. Osterloh, “Overall cardiovascular profile of sildenafil citrate,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 35C–44C, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. Y. Vardi, L. Klein, S. Nassar, E. Sprecher, and I. Gruenwald, “Effects of sildenafil citrate (viagra) on blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive men,” Urology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 747–752, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. R. A. Kloner, “Cardiovascular effects of the 3 phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors approved for the treatment of erectile dysfunction,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 19, pp. 3149–3155, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. A. Kloner, “Pharmacology and drug interaction effects of the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors: focus on α-blocker interactions,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 42M–46M, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. R. E. Scranton, E. Lawler, M. Botteman et al., “Effect of Treating Erectile Dysfunction on Management of Systolic Hypertension,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 459–463, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. D. Hatzichristou, K. Moysidis, A. Apostolidis et al., “Sildenafil failures may be due to inadequate patient instructions and follow-up: a study on 100 non-responders,” European Urology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 518–522, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. K. Park, J. H. Ku, S. W. Kim, and J. S. Paick, “Risk factors in predicting a poor response to sildenafil citrate in elderly men with erectile dysfunction,” British Journal of Urology International, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 366–370, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. V. Javaroni, M. Queiroz-Miguez, M. Abreu-Casanova, W. Oigman, and M. F. Neves, “Brachial flow-mediated dilation correlates with vardenafil response in hypertensive men with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction,” Urology, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 368–374, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. M. Karavitakis, C. Komninos, P. N. Theodorakis et al., “Evaluation of sexual function in hypertensive men receiving treatment: a review of current guidelines recommendation,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 2405–2414, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. A. D. Seftel, P. Sun, and R. Swindle, “The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and depression in men with erectile dysfunction,” Journal of Urology, vol. 171, no. 6, pp. 2341–2345, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. Manolis and M. Doumas, “Sexual dysfunction: the “prima ballerina” of hypertension-related quality-of-life complications,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 2074–2084, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. I. Moncada, J. M. Martínez-Jabaloyas, L. Rodriguez-Vela et al., “Emotional changes in men treated with sildenafil citrate for erectile dysfunction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 3469–3477, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. Lamina, C. G. Okoye, and T. T. Dagogo, “Managing erectile dysfunction in hypertension: the effects of a continuous training programme on biomarker of inflammation,” British Journal of Urology International, vol. 103, no. 9, pp. 1218–1221, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. H. Solomon, J. Man, A. S. Wierzbicki, T. O'Brien, and G. Jackson, “Erectile dysfunction: cardiovascular risk and the role of the cardiologist,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 96–99, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. G. Jackson, “Erectile dysfunction and hypertension,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 491–493, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus