International Journal of Hypertension

International Journal of Hypertension / 2012 / Article
Special Issue

Hypertension in the Elderly

View this Special Issue

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2012 |Article ID 831016 | 6 pages |

Cultural Considerations: Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Means for Improving Blood Pressure Control among Hispanic Patients

Academic Editor: Blas Gil Extremera
Received16 Jul 2011
Accepted19 Aug 2011
Published20 Oct 2011


Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and its prevention and treatment remain a priority for the medical community. Ethnic variations account for some differences in the prevalence of hypertension and blood pressure (BP) control rates among Hispanics, indicating the need for culturally appropriate management models. Aggressive treatment strategies are key to achieving optimal BP control in high-risk Hispanic patients. Hypertension in this ethnic group continues to be a major health concern. Of note, when provided access to comprehensive care, Hispanics demonstrate similar response rates to treatment as the majority of non-Hispanic whites. This highlights the importance of effective, culturally responsive hypertension management among high-risk Hispanic patients for achieving observable, positive health outcomes.

1. Introduction

In the United States, cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality; therefore, prevention and treatment remain a priority for the medical community [1]. Though each ethnic group and segments of the populations are affected by cardiovascular disease, it has been observed that socioeconomic and racial factors are strongly correlated with health. Hypertension awareness often accounts for minor differences in blood pressure (BP) control between Hispanics and non-Hispanics, resulting in the need for culturally appropriate education and management models [2].

2. Acculturation, Language, and Hypertension

In the United States, researchers note that factors such as modernization, education, and structural assimilation were correlated with favorable BP profiles [3]. The prevalence of hypertension among Hispanic Americans appears to increase with the process of acculturation and is inversely correlated with socioeconomic status [4]. Indeed, acculturation and language proficiency in this ethnic group can be directly correlated with the incidence of diabetes and associated morbidities, which have implications for cardiovascular health [5].

For example, among Mexican Americans, acculturation and age are strong predictors of hypertension as opposed to economic status [6]. Based on these findings, Mexican American women who are English proficient and had healthcare coverage were more likely to be screened for heart disease [7]. This assertion is confirmed by Sundquist and Winkleby [8], who found that risk of cardiovascular disease is highest for US-born Spanish-speaking individuals, intermediate for US-born English-speaking individuals, and lowest for individuals of Mexican origin. In spite of increased awareness on the part of both patients and their primary care providers, Spanish-speaking patients continue to have higher rates of hypertension, LDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose, when compared to acculturated, or English-speaking Hispanics [9]. US-born Mexican Americans are more likely to obtain BP screenings than their Mexican counterparts, highlighting the need for clinicians to carefully note a patients’ country of origin and other sociodemographic risk factors, such as lower levels of education [10].

3. Hispanic Identity

Hispanic and Latino individuals are the largest minority in the US population at over 15 percent. This ethnic group exhibits a great degree of genetic, physiologic, and socioeconomic variability.

Due to the complexity of this group, intracultural variability for the treatment of hypertension in Hispanics deems greater appreciation. Findings suggest that within this “single” ethnic group, there are differences in disease prevalence and complications and in access to health care. For example, Getaneh et al. [11] report that Dominican Americans have a higher incidence of diabetes than Mexican Americans.

Lin et al. [12] reported that the incidence of hypertension was 66 percent among Puerto Rican men and 73 percent among Dominican men, compared with 69 percent for non-Hispanic white men. Also, Hispanic Americans of Caribbean descent have a hypertension profile similar to that of African Americans [13].

4. Prevention and Patient Awareness

Awareness is a key in combating hypertension, which is often described as the “silent disease.” It has been found that Mexican American hypertensive subjects had significantly poorer BP control than non-Hispanic white hypertensive subjects. This trend is often attributed to low hypertension awareness among Hispanics when compared with their counterparts in other ethnic groups [13].

The most effective way to ensure good health is to emphasize a healthy, preventative lifestyle. Prevention behaviors can be taught in childhood and actively practiced through adolescence and into young adulthood. Increasingly, adolescents are at risk for developing insulin resistance and worsened cardiovascular disease risk factors [14].

Such risk factors set the stage for obesity, which is placing young people at risk for diabetes and hypertension [14]. Hispanics have been shown to have a 21 percent greater prevalence of obesity compared with non-Hispanic whites [15]. This trend among adolescents suggests prevention and health literacy beginning should be emphasized at a very early age by way of school-based and community-based prevention strategies. Such strategies can directly impact health outcomes and academic performance [16]. Because diabetes tends to be diagnosed in Mexican Americans at younger ages, it is important to screen this population at earlier timepoints (i.e., adolescence) for hypertension. In addition, African Americans and Mexican Americans have the lowest rates of BP control though under treatment [17]. Specifically, it has been reported that among patients with hypertension, medication use was lower in Hispanics (45%) than in non-Hispanic whites (54%) [18]. These high rates indicated a need for educational campaigns to raise awareness.

5. Incidence of Hypertension in Hispanics

Although historically, Mexican Americans’ prevalence for heart disease and hypertension has been lower than among their counterparts in the general population, there has been an increase since 1993 making it the leading cause of death among Mexican Americans [10, 19]. This increasing incidence is partly indicative of a failure to prevent cardiovascular disease through management and education [20].

Although BP control and cholesterol levels have improved for adults with cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in general, differences in disease control with respect to ethnicity and age have not decreased, with hypertension control remaining higher among non-Hispanic whites [21]. This demonstrates that, with respect to demographic trends, the overall incidence of hypertension among Mexican Americans continues to be a matter of concern for public health, with severely adverse outcomes seen in 6 percent of the Mexican American older population [22].

6. Medications and Treatment

The findings from ALLHAT (antihypertensive lipid lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial) demonstrate that Hispanic participants had equivalent or superior BP control compared with non-Hispanics in a clinical trial setting where patients with hypertension possessed equal access to medical care. In this trial, medication was also provided at no cost. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanic whites had a 20 percent increased likelihood of achieving BP control than non-Hispanic whites, after adjusting for multiple factors that predict BP control [23].

Hispanic Americans have higher rates of cardiac morbidity. As a result, researchers have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIn) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may be particularly useful in the Hispanic population owing to the ability of RAAS inhibitors to protect against end-organ damage caused by hypertension [24].

The effectiveness of proper medication regimens should not be underestimated among Hispanic patients. It has been noted that the use of antihypertensive regimens resulted in superior BP control and fewer cardiovascular events in Hispanic women compared with non-Hispanic white women [25]. Furthermore, it has been found that adherence to treatment was better among blacks (83.7%) and Hispanics (83%) than among whites (78.4%) [26].

Several large trials continue to explore this important line of inquiry. The ongoing telmisartan alone and in combination with ramipril global endpoint trial (ONTARGET) [27] study suggests that high-risk patients benefit from combination therapy. In the INVEST (international verapamil-trandolapril study) trial, no significant differences were noted between verapamil and atenolol-based strategies for the primary outcome of death and nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke by ethnicity [28]. The INVEST researchers discovered that Hispanics, in particular, had a lower risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes than non-Hispanics. A third study, the VALUE (valsartan long-term use evaluation) trial, found no differences by ethnicity between valsartan- and amlodipine-based therapies for the composite cardiac outcome [29]. Moreover, the INCLUSIVE study demonstrated that combination therapy led to substantial decreases in systolic BP among Hispanic patients [30].

The efficacy of the ACE and ARB combinations has been demonstrated in many studies. ACE and ARB agents each have their own pharmacologically relevant profiles, including different efficacy profiles for BP control [31]. There may be unwanted side effects, such as angioedema, which may be associated with some ARBs [32].

Some studies have suggested that primary care providers should aim for more aggressive treatment of their hypertensive patients, regardless of ethnicity [26]. Compliance with JNC prescribing guidelines and more aggressive increase of medication dosages when indicated can improve rates of hypertension control and reduce the racial differences in hypertension outcomes [26]. Overall, the control rates of hypertension among Mexican Americans have increased significantly over a period of 5 years and have even been described as “encouraging” [19].

7. Comorbidities and Quality of Life in Hispanics with Hypertension

Comorbidity rates and mortality related to hypertension may be higher among individuals in the Hispanic community. For elderly patients, hypertension and its associated comorbidities present special challenges. It has been found that there is a direct correlation between age, the severity of the hypertension, and cognitive decline among Mexican Americans aged 65 years or older [33]. Lower extremity functional limitation (LEFL) is one of the comorbidities associated with suboptimal prescribing in hypertension [34]. In addition, it has also been noted that psychological effects caused by hypertension and the need for daily management can lead to a decreased quality of life [35].

8. Choosing the Right Treatments for Hypertension and Comorbidity Management

Targeted efforts to increase the use of ACE inhibitors or ARBs have been shown to improve quality of care for high-risk patients, regardless of ethnicity.

Several practical clinical management strategies have been found effective in improving clinical outcomes. For example, because nonadherence was found to be correlated with having BP checked in an emergency room, changing the locus of care for hypertension from emergency rooms to primary care may improve outcomes [36]. Another strategy, the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) combination diet, may be an effective strategy for preventing and treating hypertension, particularly in high-risk populations [37].

9. Special Considerations for Hispanic Women

It has been demonstrated that Hispanic women exhibit less favorable risk profiles for hypertension than non-Hispanic women [38]. Among younger, perimenopausal women, African American and Hispanic women exhibited the lowest rates of control for hypertensive risk factors [39], and hypertension control rates continue to be subobtimal for Hispanic women aged 60 years or older [40]. However, Hispanic women continue to have better treatment and control rates for hypertension than Hispanic men (Table 1).

Characteristic**Hypertension prevalence % (95% CI‡‡)Awareness of condition % (95% CI)Under current treatment % (95% CI)Condition controlled % (95% CI)

 Men27.8 (24.9–29.7)59.4 (55.8–63.1)45.2 (40.9–49.6)27.5 (23.7–31.3)
 Women29.0 (27.3–30.8)69.3 (61.7–77.0)56.1 (29.2–63.1)35.5 (28.4–42.7)
 White, non-Hispanic27.4 (25.3–29.5)62.9 (57.3–68.5)48.6 (44.1–53.1)29.8 (25.7–34.0)
 Black, non-Hispanic40.5 (38.2–42.9)70.3 (64.9–75.9)55.4 (51.2–59.6)29.8 (25.2–34.5)
 Mexican American25.1 (23.1–27.1)49.8 (40.4–59.2)34.9 (27.5–42.3)17.3 (10.7–23.8)
Age group (yrs)
 20–396.7 (5.3–8.2)48.7 (38.8–58.7)28.1 (20.1–36.1)17.6 (11.6–23.7)
 40–5929.1 (25.9–32.4)73.5 (69.1–77.9061.2 (57.1–65.2)40.5 (36.4–44.5)
 ≥6065.2 (62.4–68.0)72.4 (70.0–74.7)65.6 (61.9–69.3)31.4 (28.7–34.2)

Total¶¶28.6 (26.830.4)63.4 (59.467.4)45.3 (45.352.8)29.3 (26.032.7)

*Had a blood pressure measurement ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic or took antihypertensive medication.
Told by a health-care professional that blood pressure was high.
§Took antihypertensive medication.
Hypertension levels <140 mm Hg systolic and <90 mm Hg diastolic.
**All characteristic estimates (excluding age group) are age adjusted [15].

10. Promotoras and Community Health Workers

The Hispanic community has a tradition of relying upon community health workers, also known as promotoras, to help improve the health of individuals in the community. For example, The Salud para su Corazón-HRSA initiative was successful in the development of infrastructure directed at supported promotoras de salud workforce in the US-Mexico border region [41]. Reductions in salt and cholesterol intake were shown to improve through promotora intervention [41]. A diabetes self-management education program can be effectively implemented in community settings for glycemic control [42]. In looking at community-based prevention, intervention was found to significantly increase the number of women meeting national recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption [43].

Community-health workers also play a vital role in addressing the needs of rural patients. Optimization of healthcare delivery is needed for Hispanics who live in rural areas and who tend to be at higher risk for hypertension and less responsive to primary and specialty care compared with their urban counterparts [44]. The delivery of rural healthcare to patients with hypertension requires new strategies such as programs targeting therapeutic inertia, home-based monitoring of BP, and internet-based communication programs [45].

11. Innovative Strategies for Treatment and Prevention

Continuing care and lifestyle modification are practical, effective means of controlling hypertension among Hispanics. It has been shown that effective, culturally appropriate interventions result in increased adherence to lifestyle and diet modification [46].

One approach that has been suggested is a community-academic partnership, which enabled the successful recruitment, intervention, and assessment of Hispanics at risk for diabetes [47]. While this approach was adopted with the goal of reducing the risk of diabetes, its methods can perhaps be applied to patients with hypertension to achieve BP control. Another suggested intervention, the use of senior centers as an intervention point for offering behavioral counseling and implementing lifestyle changes, has resulted in reduced systolic BP and increased adherence [48]. Church-based interventions may be a way to reduce stroke [49]. Culturally appropriate community-based interventions, such as those designed to engage individuals in physical activity while also increasing their awareness of risk factors, can impact clinical outcomes [50]. Cultural adaptation strategies, such as Spanish-language intervention models leading to lifestyle-based management programs, may also be effective [51].

Family-based interventions to raise awareness about hypertension can be effective, especially if they are administered through school-based programs that can educate both parents and children. In fact, it has been demonstrated that school-based programs are effective and correlated with reductions in BP among adult family members [52].

Nursing care management programs can also be clinically effective as well as cost effective in a medically indigent, culturally diverse population and provide an immediate benefit to a high-risk population [53]. Pharmacists play an important role in community-based screenings and in identifying high-risk individuals for cardiac disease [54]. To combat the increasing risk of hypertension and diabetes in increasingly younger groups, school-based interventions have been developed and implemented in Southwestern states [55].

12. Conclusions

Innovative, aggressive, timely treatment, with support in a community-based context, is needed. Interventions to reduce disparities in cardiovascular outcomes should consider the need to intensify drug therapy among all high-risk populations, as the aggressiveness of treatment strategies is key to achieving optimal BP control in high-risk patients. Although hypertension continues to be a major health concern for Hispanics, when these patients are given access to effective care, they demonstrate the same responsiveness to treatments as the majority of non-Hispanic white Americans.

These findings highlight the importance of effective, culturally responsive hypertension management in high-risk Hispanic patients for achieving observable, positive health outcomes.


Writing assistance was provided by Arushi Sinhha, PhD, of Publication CONNEXION (Newtown, Pa). The authors also wish to thank Diandrea Garza for her technical assistance in the revision of this paper. This work meets the criteria for authorship as recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). All the authors were fully responsible for all content and editorial decisions and were involved at all stages of paper development.


  1. I. Hajjar and T. A. Kotchen, “Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the United States, 1988–2000,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 2, pp. 199–206, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. E. C. Okonofua, N. E. Cutler, D. T. Lackland, and B. M. Egan, “Ethnic differences in older Americans: awareness, knowledge, and beliefs about hypertension,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 972–979, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. H. P. Hazuda, “Socioeconomic disparities in health in the United States: what the patterns tell us,” Public Health Reports, vol. 111, no. S2, pp. 18–21, 1996. View at: Google Scholar
  4. J. L. Cangiano, “Hypertension in hispanic Americans,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 345–350, 1994. View at: Google Scholar
  5. A. G. Mainous III, A. Majeed, R. J. Koopman et al., “Acculturation and diabetes among hispanics: evidence from the 1999–2002 national health and nutrition examination survey,” Public Health Reports, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 60–66, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  6. D. V. Espino and D. Maldonado, “Hypertension and acculturation in elderly medican Americans: results from 1982–84 hispanic HANES,” Journals of Gerontology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. M209–M213, 1990. View at: Google Scholar
  7. J. M. Jurkowski and T. P. Johnson, “Acculturation and cardiovascular disease screening practices among Mexican Americans living in Chicago,” Ethnicity and Disease, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 411–417, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  8. J. Sundquist and M. A. Winkleby, “Cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican American adults: a transcultural analysis of NHANES III, 1988–1994,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 723–730, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
  9. P. P. Eamranond, A. T. R. Legedza, A. V. Diez-Roux et al., “Association between language and risk factor levels among Hispanic adults with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or diabetes,” American Heart Journal, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. J. M. Jurkowski, “Nativity and cardiovascular disease screening practices,” Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 339–346, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. A. Getaneh, W. Michelen, and S. Findley, “The prevalence of cardiovascular risk conditions and awareness among a latino subgroup: Dominicans in Northern Manhattan,” Ethnicity and Disease, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 342–347, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  12. H. Lin, O. I. Bermudez, L. M. Falcon, and K. L. Tucker, “Hypertension among hispanic elders of a Caribbean origin in Massachusetts,” Ethnicity and Disease, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 499–507, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  13. D. S. Kountz, “Hypertension in ethnic populations: tailoring treatments,” Clinical Cornerstone, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 39–48, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. D. E. Williams, B. L. Cadwell, Y. J. Cheng et al., “Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and its relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors in US adolescents, 1999–2000,” Pediatrics, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 1122–1126, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Racial/ethnic disparities in prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension—United States, 1999–2002,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 7–9, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  16. J. Z. Willey, O. Williams, and B. Boden-Albala, “Stroke literacy in Central Harlem: a high-risk stroke population,” Neurology, vol. 73, no. 23, pp. 1950–1956, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. T. Giles, J. M. Aranda, D. C. Suh et al., “Ethnic/racial variations in blood pressure awareness, treatment, and control,” Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 345–354, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  18. C. Ayala, L. J. Neff, J. B. Croft et al., “Prevalence of self-reported high blood pressure awareness, advice received from health professionals, and actions taken to reduce high blood pressure among US adults—Healthstyles 2002,” Journal of Clinical Hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.), vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 513–519, 2005. View at: Google Scholar
  19. M. Al Ghatrif, Y. F. Kuo, S. Al Snih, M. A. Raji, L. A. Ray, and K. S. Markides, “Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in older Mexican Americans, 1993–2005,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 15–25, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  20. A. Bersamin, R. S. Stafford, and M. A. Winkleby, “Predictors of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control among Mexican American women and men,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. S521–S527, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  21. J. He, P. Muntner, J. Chen, E. J. Roccella, R. H. Streiffer, and P. K. Whelton, “Factors associated with hypertension control in the general population of the United States,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 162, no. 9, pp. 1051–1058, 2002. View at: Google Scholar
  22. S. Satish, C. A. Stroup-Benham, D. V. Espino, K. S. Markides, and J. S. Goodwin, “Undertreatment of hypertension in older Mexican Americans,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 405–410, 1998. View at: Google Scholar
  23. K. L. Margolis, L. B. Piller, C. E. Ford et al., “Blood pressure control in hispanics in the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial,” Hypertension, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 854–861, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  24. J. M. Aranda, R. Calderon, and J. M. Aranda, “Clinical characteristics and outcomes in hypertensive patients of hispanic descent,” Preventive Cardiology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 116–120, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  25. R. M. Cooper-Dehoff, Q. Zhou, E. Gaxiola et al., “Influence of hispanic ethnicity on blood pressure control and cardiovascular outcomes in women with CAD and hypertension: findings from INVEST,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 632–640, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  26. L. S. Hicks, D. G. Fairchild, M. S. Horng, E. J. Orav, D. W. Bates, and J. Z. Ayanian, “Determinants of JNC VI guideline adherence, intensity of drug therapy, and blood pressure control by race and ethnicity,” Hypertension, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 429–434, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  27. S. Yusuf, K. K. Teo, J. Pogue et al., “Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 15, pp. 1547–1559, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  28. R. M. Cooper-DeHoff, J. M. Aranda, E. Gaxiola et al., “Blood pressure control and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk Hispanic patients–findings from the International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril Study (INVEST),” American Heart Journal, vol. 151, no. 5, pp. 1072–1079, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  29. A. Zanchetti, S. Julius, S. Kjeldsen et al., “Outcomes in subgroups of hypertensive patients treated with regimens based on valsartan and amlodipine: an analysis of findings from the VALUE trial,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 2163–2168, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  30. E. O. Ofili, K. C. Ferdinand, E. Saunders et al., “Irbesartan/HCTZ fixed combinations in patients of different racial/ethnic groups with uncontrolled systolic blood pressure on monotherapy,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 616–626, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  31. C. Schindler, “ACE-inhibitor, AT1-receptor-antagonist, or both? A clinical pharmacologist's perspective after publication of the results of ONTARGET,” Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 233–248, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  32. B. K. Irons and A. Kumar, “Valsartan-induced angioedema,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 37, no. 7-8, pp. 1024–1027, 2003. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  33. K. C. Insel, R. F. Palmer, C. A. Stroup-Benham, K. S. Markides, and D. V. Espino, “Association between change in systolic blood pressure and cognitive decline among elderly Mexican Americans: data from the hispanic established population for epidemiology study of the elderly,” Experimental Aging Research, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 35–54, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  34. M. J. V. Pugh, R. F. Palmer, M. L. Parchman, E. Mortensen, K. Markides, and D. V. Espino, “Association of suboptimal prescribing and change in lower extremity physical function over time,” Gerontology, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 445–453, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  35. D. K. Hayes, C. H. Denny, N. L. Keenan, J. B. Croft, and K. J. Greenlund, “Health-related quality of life and hypertension status, awareness, treatment, and control: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2004,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 641–647, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  36. S. Shea, D. Misra, M. H. Ehrlich, L. Field, and C. K. Francis, “Correlates of nonadherence to hypertension treatment in an inner-city minority population,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 82, no. 12, pp. 1607–1612, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  37. L. P. Svetkey, D. Simons-Morton, W. M. Vollmer et al., “Effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) randomized clinical trial,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 3, pp. 285–293, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  38. G. J. Winston, R. G. Barr, O. Carrasquillo, A. G. Bertoni, and S. Shea, “Sex and racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease risk factor treatment and control among individuals with diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA),” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1467–1469, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  39. C. A. Derby, G. FitzGerald, N. L. Lasser, and R. C. Pasternak, “Application of national screening criteria for blood pressure and cholesterol to perimenopausal women: prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in the study of women's health across the nation,” Preventive Cardiology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 150–159, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  40. Y. Ostchega, C. F. Dillon, J. P. Hughes, M. Carroll, and S. Yoon, “Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in older U.S. adults: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 2004,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1056–1065, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  41. H. G. Balcazar, T. L. Byrd, M. Ortiz, S. R. Tondapu, and M. Chavez, “A randomized community intervention to improve hypertension control among mexican americans: using the promotoras de salud community outreach model,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1079–1094, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  42. A. Castillo, A. Giachello, R. Bates et al., “Community-based diabetes education for latinos: the diabetes empowerment education program,” Diabetes Educator, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 586–594, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  43. L. K. Staten, K. Y. Gregory-Mercado, J. Ranger-Moore et al., “Provider counseling, health education, and community health workers: the Arizona WISEWOMAN project,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 547–556, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  44. R. J. Koopman, A. G. Mainous, and M. E. Geesey, “Rural residence and Hispanic ethnicity: doubly disadvantaged for diabetes?” Journal of Rural Health, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 63–68, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  45. B. Bale, “Optimizing hypertension management in underserved rural populations,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 10–17, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  46. S. Natarajan, E. J. Santa Ana, Y. Liao, S. R. Lipsitz, and D. L. McGee, “Effect of treatment and adherence on ethnic differences in blood pressure control among adults with hypertension,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 172–179, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  47. P. A. Merriam, T. L. Tellez, M. C. Rosal et al., “Methodology of a diabetes prevention translational research project utilizing a community-academic partnership for implementation in an underserved Latino community,” BMC Medical Research Methodology, vol. 9, no. 20, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  48. S. Fernandez, K. L. Scales, J. M. Pineiro, A. M. Schoenthaler, and G. Ogedegbe, “A senior center-based pilot trial of the effect of lifestyle intervention on blood pressure in minority elderly people with hypertension,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1860–1866, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  49. D. B. Zahuranec, L. B. Morgenstern, N. M. Garcia et al., “Stroke health and risk education (share) pilot project: feasibility and need for church-based stroke health promotion in a bi-ethnic community,” Stroke, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1583–1585, 2008. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  50. T. L. Harralson, J. C. Emig, M. Polansky, R. E. Walker, J. O. Cruz, and C. Garcia-Leeds, “Un Corazón Saludable: factors influencing outcomes of an exercise program designed to impact cardiac and metabolic risks among urban latinas,” Journal of Community Health, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 401–412, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  51. M. D. P. Rocha-Goldberg, L. Corsino, B. Batch et al., “Hypertension improvement project (HIP) Latino: results of a pilot study of lifestyle intervention for lowering blood pressure in Latino adults,” Ethnicity and Health, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 269–282, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  52. C. J. Atkins, K. Senn, J. Rupp et al., “Attendance at health promotion programs: baseline predictors and program outcomes,” Health Education Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 417–428, 1990. View at: Google Scholar
  53. T. P. Gilmer, A. Philis-Tsimikas, and C. Walker, “Outcomes of project dulce: a culturally specific diabetes management program,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 817–822, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  54. K. A. Snella, A. E. Canales, B. K. Irons et al., “Pharmacy- and community-based screenings for diabetes and cardiovascular conditions in high-risk individuals,” Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 370–377, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  55. D. M. Hoelscher, S. H. Kelder, N. Murray, P. W. Cribb, J. Conroy, and G. S. Parcel, “Dissemination and adoption of the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health (CATCH): a case study in Texas,” Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 90–100, 2001. View at: Google Scholar

Copyright © 2012 Neela K. Patel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

More related articles

11081 Views | 1298 Downloads | 3 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.