International Journal of Hypertension / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Serum Cotinine Levels and Prehypertension in Never Smokers

Table 2

Association between serum cotinine levels and prehypertension.

Cotinine quartilesNo. at riskCasesAge-, sex-adjusted odds ratio
(95% confidence interval)
Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio
(95% confidence interval)*

Quartile 1 (≤0.024 ng/mL)4881651 (referent)1 (referent)
Quartile 2 (0.025–0.054 ng/mL)5241881.19 (0.89, 1.60)1.19 (0.90, 1.58)
Quartile 3 (0.055–0.223 ng/mL)5081851.44 (1.02, 2.02)1.38 (0.97, 1.96 )
Quartile 4 (≥0.224 ng/mL)5071961.53 (1.07, 2.19)1.45 (1.00, 2.11)
P trend0.01420.0451

*Adjusted for age (years), sex (men, women), ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican Americans, others), education categories (<high school, high school, >high school), drinking (never drinker, former drinker, 1 or 2 drink/day, ≥3 drinks/day), BMI (normal weight, overweight, obese), glycohemoglobin (%), total cholesterol (mg/dL), below poverty level (%), and hormone use (ever, never).