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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 436502, 7 pages
Research Article

Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

1Brooklyn Health Disparities Center, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, P.O. Box 1199, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203-2098, USA
2Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Division of Internal Medicine, NYU Medical Center, NY, USA
3Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, NY, USA
4Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, NY, USA

Received 8 October 2012; Accepted 6 February 2013

Academic Editor: Antonio Felipe Sanjuliani

Copyright © 2013 A. Pandey et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hour) sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years). Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hours) sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; ). Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.