International Journal of Hypertension / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Inflammation and Hypertension: Are There Regional Differences?

Table 2

Ethnic differences in main pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Study
(Author and Ref)
SubjectsMarkerResults Comments

Albert et al.
[63]
24,455 White, Hispanic, and Asian adult females. Health Study in the United States.CRPMedian/interquartile range (IQR)
Black: 2.96 mg/L (1.19, 5.86)
White: 2.02 mg/L (0.81, 4.37)
Hispanic: (2.06 mg/L (0.88, 4.88)
Asian: (1.12 mg/L (0.48, 2.25)
Black women had significantly higher values of CRP than White, Hispanic, and Asian.

Chandalia et al.
[64]
137 South Asian and White adult males CRPMean:
Asian Indians: 0.99 mg/dL
White: 0.58 mg/dL
Asian Indians had significantly higher concentrations of hs-CRP than Caucasians. .

McDade et al.
[65]
229 Black, White, and Hispanic adult.CRPMedian/(IQR)
White:
Females: 1.05 mg/L (0.44, 1.88)
Males: 0.59 (0.44, 1.50)
Black:
Females: 3.30 mg/L (1.39, 4.47)
Males: 1.07 mg/L (0.37, 1.70)
Hispanic:
Females: 1.49 mg/L (0.78, 3.10)
Males: 1.00 mg/L (0.55, 1.65)
Black had significantly higher CRP concentrations than the other groups.

Schutte et al.
[66]
217 Black and White adult females. POWIRS study. CRPMean ± SD
Black: 4.59 mg/L (3.17; 6.01)
White: 3.27 mg/L (2.56; 3.98)
Black women had significantly higher hs-CRP levels compared to white women.

Patel et al.
[67]
1083 Black and White adults. Bogalusa Heart Study. CRPMean ± SD
White:
Males: 1.8 ± 1.9 mg/L;
Females: 2.5 ± 2.3 mg/L;
Black:
Males: 2.3 ± 2.3 mg/L
Females: 2.7 ± 2.4 mg/L
Black had significantly higher CRP values than Whites. .

Khera et al.
[68]
2,749 White and Black adults. Dallas Heart Study.CRPMedian
Black: 3.0 mg/L
White: 2.3 mg/L;
Significantly higher CRP values in blacks. .

Ford et al.
[69]
2205 Whites, Black, and Mexican American adult females.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000.
 CRPMean
Whites: 2.3 mg/L
Black: 3.1 mg/L
Mexican American: 3.5 mg/L
Significantly higher CRP in Mexican-American women than White women. .

Ford et al.
[70]
1940 White, Black, Mexican, and other American adults. CRPMedian:
White: 1.6 mg/L
Black: 1.7 mg/L
Mexican: 1.5 mg/L
Other: 1.8 mg/L
No significant differences between ethnicities.

LaMonte et al.
[71]
135 Black, Native and White adult females.
American Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study (CAPS).
 CRP Mean ± SD 
Native: 0.25 ± 0.03 mg/dL
Whites: 0.23 ± 0.13 mg/dL
Black: 0.43 ± 0.03 mg/dL
Significantly higher CRP concentrations among Black compared with Native and White. .

Elkind et al.
[72]
279 Hispanic, Black, and White American adult. Northern Manhattan Stroke Study.CRPMean ± SD
White: 1.88 ± 2.75 mg/L
Black: 2.64 ± 4.62 mg/L
Hispanic: 2.11 ± 3.50 mg/L
There were some differences in levels of marker by ethnicity but none were statistically significant.
TNF-αWhite: 2.71 ± 4.25 pg/mL
Black: 1.04 ± 1.63 pg/mL
IL-6White: 1.15 ± 1.08 pg/mL
Black: 1.36 ± 1.51 pg/mL
IL-1White: 0.23 ± 0.43 pg/mL
Black: 0.35 ± 0.59 pg/mL;

Wener et al.
[73]
22,000 multiethnic individuals age 4 yrs. Third National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES III). CRP95th percentile value
Males: 0.95 mg/dL
Females: 1.39 mg/dL.
The values for Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic whites were similar, compared with non-Hispanic black adults females, who had higher levels.

Chatha et al.
[74]
191 White and Indo-Asian. British adults.CRPMean ± SD
Indo Asian:
Female 2.29 (1.52) mg/L
Male 1.77 (1.46) mg/ L
Whites:
Female 2.23 (1.54) mg/ L; Male 1.94
(1.45) mg/ L.
Serum CRP concentrations were similar in Indo-Asians and White.

Chambers et al.
[75]
1532 Asians and White. British adults.  CRPMean ± SD:
Whites: 1.47 ± 1.62 mg/L
Asians: 1.71 ± 1.81 mg/L
Significantly higher CRP concentration in Asians compared with whites. .

Forouhi et al.
[76]
113 adult South Asian and White British adults.
CRPMean
White:
Male: 0.92 (0.34–1.61) mg/L
Female: 0.70 (0.41–1.70) mg/L
South Asian:
Male: 1.07 (0.76–1.50) mg/L
Female: 1.35 (0.72–3.04) mg/L
Median CRP level in South Asian women was nearly double that in European women. ( ).
 CRPMean
Black: 2.5 mg/L
Whites: 2.1 mg/L
Afro-Caribbean had significantly higher TNF- ( ), and IL-6 ( ) levels.

Kalra et al.
[77]
160 Black and White. British adults.IL-6 Whites: 1.5 pg/mL
Black: 2.3 pg/mL
No significance in CRP levels despite elevated IL-6 and TNF- .
TNF- Whites: 4.3 ± 3.6 mg/m/L
Black: 6.7 ± 6.1 pg/mL.
CRP was significantly lower in Black men and women than in other ethnic groups. .

Heald et al.
[78]
440 White, Pakistani, and Black British adults.
Population-based community survey.
CRP Mean
Black:
Male: 1.0 mg/L
Female: 1.3 mg/L
White:
Male: 2.2 mg/L
Female: 2.1 mg/L
Pakistani:
Male: 1.7 mg/L
Female: 2.8 mg/L
2.8(2.1–3.6)  mg/L

Mwantembe et al.
[79]
72 Black and White adults.
Study performed in South Africa.
IL-1Mean ± SD
Whites: 1.99 ± 1.88 pg/mL
Blacks: 2.69 ± 2.58 pg/mL;
No significant differences

Petersen et al.
[80]
482 South-Asians and
White young adults.
IL-6
TNF- α
Mean:
Whites: 0.78 pg/mL
South-Asians: 1.60 pg/mL;
Whites: 1.13 pg/mL
South-Asians: 1.29 pg/mL
Significantly higher IL-6 concentrations in South-Asians compared with White men. .

Albandar et al.
[81]
228 White, Hispanic, Black adults. IL-1Mean:
White: 28.4 pg/mL
Hispanic: 34.7 pg/mL
Black: 21.7 pg/mL
Hispanics had higher IL-1beta concentrations than Blacks. .

Hong et al.
[82]
70 White, Black American Adults.IL-6Mean:
IL-6 1.36 (±0.80) pg/mL.
No significant differences between ethnicities.