Table 1: Differences of the effects of glycemic control in cardiovascular risk reduction in type 2 diabetes.

UKPDS-10 yearsVADTADVANCEACCORD

Sample size5,102*1,79111,14010,251
Followup (years)105.653.4
Baseline characteristics
 Age (years)5460.45862.2
 Duration of diabetes (years)Recently diagnosed11.5810
 Presence of cardiovascular disease9%40%32%35%
 Presence of microvascular complications 18%62%10%Albuminuria
14.0 (6.9–45.8)#
 A1c levels 6.2%8.3%7.5%8.3%
Effects of intensive treatment
 Difference in A1c levels (intensive/conventional)7.0/7.9%6.9/8.4%6.5/7.3%6.4/7.5%
 Reduction in macrovascular eventsSulfa/insulin group
15% MI, 13% death
Metformin group
33% MI, 27% death
NSNSNonfatal MI
↑Death
 Reduction in microvascular events
 (diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, or neuropathy)
24%
(combined)
NSincident nephropathy

NS: nonstatistically significant.
A1c: glycated hemoglobin; MI: myocardial infarction.
*3,277 posttrial monitoring.
#The percentage of subjects with microvascular complications is not available. Ratio of urinary albumin (mg) to creatinine (g); median (Interquartile range).