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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 852389, 4 pages
Research Article

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Hypertensive US-Born Blacks and Foreign-Born Blacks: Analysis of the CAATCH Data

1Department of Medicine, Brooklyn Health Disparities Center, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, NY 11203-2098, USA
2Jackson State University Medical Systems, Jackson Heart Study, Jackson, MS 39213, USA
3Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, St George’s University, Grenada
4Division of Internal Medicine, Center for Healthful Behavior Change, NYU Medical Center, NY 10016, USA
5Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, NY 11203-2098, USA
6Department of Medicine, Sleep Disorders Center, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, NY 11203-2098, USA

Received 8 October 2012; Revised 28 November 2012; Accepted 6 December 2012

Academic Editor: Juan Carlos Kaski

Copyright © 2013 N. Williams et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Evidence shows that blacks exhibit greater daytime sleepiness compared with whites, based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. In addition, sleep complaints might differ based on individuals’ country of origin. However, it is not clear whether individuals’ country of origin has any influence on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Study Objectives. We tested the hypothesis that US-born blacks would show a greater level of EDS compared with foreign-born blacks. The potential effects of sociodemographic and medical risk were also determined. Design. We used the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) data. CAATCH is a group randomized clinical trial that was conducted among 30 community healthcare centers in New York, yielding baseline data for 1,058 hypertensive black patients. Results. Results of univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that US-born blacks were nearly twice as likely as their foreign-born black counterparts to exhibit EDS ( , 95% CI: 1.30–2.68, ). After adjusting for effects of age, sex, education, employment, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit, US-born blacks were 69% more likely than their counterparts to exhibit EDS ( , 95% CI: 1.11–2.57, ). Conclusion. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering individuals’ country of origin, in addition to their race and ethnicity, when analyzing epidemiologic sleep data.