Table 3: Determinants of hypertension in workers in West Africa.

Study populationLocationDeterminants AgeSexPhysical activityObesity or adiposityAlcoholSESOthersVariables in modelType of analysis

Civil servants
Benin CityBMI (OR 2.88 Tertile 3 versus Tertile 1), age (OR 10-year groups 1.42), alcohol drinking (OR 1.85), and high SES (OR 2.62) were all independent risk factors for HTN in men but not education. Only BMI (OR 13.2) related to HTN in women.Age [OR 10-year groups 1.42, 95% CI
1.03–1.96] in men; not significant in women
BMI [OR 2.88 Tertile 3 versus Tertile 1, 95% CI 1.6–5.1 in men]; OR 13.2, 95% CI 1.5–113.0 in womenAlcohol drinking (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.15–2.98) in men; not significant in womenSenior staff in men (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.61–4.29); not significant in womenStaff grade, BMI, alcohol drinking, and age in 10-year intervals.Logistic regression

Civil servants
SokotoOnly age group and BMI tertile in men and sodium excretion were statistically significant. No significant association with sodium excretion or SES in men or with age, BMI, or staff grade in women.10-year age intervals
OR = 2.4 (95% CI 1.8–3.4) in men
Tertile 3 OR = 2.9 (1.6–5.1) in men; OR = 13.2 (1.5–113.0) in womenAlcohol drinker OR = 1.9 (1.2–3.0) in menSenior staff OR = 2.6 (1.6–4.3) in menPotassium excretion not significantAge group 10-year groups, BMI, sodium excretion, and staff status.Logistic regression

Civil servants
IbadanFor both sexes, normalized WHR, plasma glucose, age, and family history of diabetes. Only age predicted HTN in women.OR = 1.1NSWHR, OR = 1.35Height not associated with BP or HTN Age, family history of diabetes, sex, plasma glucose, and normalized WHR.Logistic regression

Civil servants
AccraAge group > 35 years, male sex, and physical inactivityAge group 35–44 years
OR = 3.8 (2.0–7.4); 45–54 years
OR = 11.3 (6.4–21.5); ≥55  years
OR = 15.0 (8.2–29.8)
Female sex
OR = 0.71 (0.50–0.99)
OR = 0.7 (0.5–1.0); intense
OR = 0.6 (0.3–1.2)
NSNSSex, age groups, BMI, physical activity, and alcohol use.Logistic regression

Civil servants
AccraPositive graded association between staff grade and HTN and current wealth when adjusted for age and sex. Statistically significant associations are lost when BMI is controlled for. NSAge, sex, preadult and current wealth, employment grade, level of education, and BMI.Logistic regression with age as continuous variable

Civil servants
Kaduna CityAge group ≥ 40 years, family history (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1).AOR ≥ 40 years = 6.7 (95% CI 4.1–11.0) compared with age group < 40 yearsMarital status not significantly associated with HTNAge, marital status, and family historyLogistic regression

Health workers in a Teaching Hospital
Jos CityAlcohol (OR 2.58, ) and obesity (OR 3.37, ) were found to be independently associated with hypertension. OR = 3.37, OR = 2.58, Age, sex, BMI, and alcoholLogistic regression

Health workers
YenagoaAge groups > 30 years.AOR 30–45 years = 4.147 (95% CI
1.25–13.67), > 45 years = 5.45 (95% CI 1.46–22.80) compared with age group < 30 years
NSTruncal obesity (WC > 102 cm in men, >88 cm in females) versus normal WC; AOR = 3.64 (95% CI 1.15–9.06). BMI and WHR = NSEducational level: NSMarital status: NSAge, sex, marital status, level of education, family history of HTN, past history of diabetes, family history of diabetes, history of alcohol use, smoking, BMI, WC, and WHR.Logistic regression

Male factory workers
IbadanEducation associated with BP, after adjusting for age, BMI, pulse, and alcohol consumption.Age, BMI, pulse rate, and current alcohol drinking.Multiple logistic analysis of covariance

Market workers (traders and artisans)
Enugu Age, BMI, and alcohol consumption predicted HTN.Increasing ageNot significantly associated with HTNSignificant factorSignificant factorAge, sex, smoking, snuff tobacco, alcohol, BMI, WHR, and educational status.Multiple linear regression

HTN: hypertension; OR: odds ratio; SES: socioeconomic status.