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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1848375, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1848375
Review Article

Review of and Updates on Hypertension in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

1Department of Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA
2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Sana Akbar; ude.uvw.csh@rabkas

Received 22 May 2017; Accepted 17 August 2017; Published 24 September 2017

Academic Editor: Markus P. Schlaich

Copyright © 2017 Masood Ahmad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder as is hypertension (HTN) in the 21st century with the rising incidence of obesity. Numerous studies have shown a strong association of OSA with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the relationship between OSA and hypertension (HTN). The pathophysiology of HTN in OSA is complex and dependent on various factors such as sympathetic tone, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction, and altered baroreceptor reflexes. The treatment of OSA is multifactorial ranging from CPAP to oral appliances to lifestyle modifications to antihypertensive drugs. OSA and HTN both need prompt diagnosis and treatment to help address the growing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to these two entities.