International Journal of Hypertension / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Chronic Kidney Disease and Pulse Wave Velocity: A Narrative Review

Table 1

Prospective observational studies assessing PWV in patients with CKD.

StudyPopulation and follow-upOutcome

Zoungas et al, 2007
(ASFAST) [6]
315 CKD Stage 4–5, median 42 months follow-upPWV predictive of composite end point of cardiovascular events; HR for every 1 m/s increase in PWV was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12 - 1.25)
Chen et al, 2012 [50]
186 CKD Stage 3–5 patients, mean 22 months follow-upPWV associated with increased rate of CKD progression
Tholen et al, 2013 [44]70 CKD Stage 2–4, 12 months follow-upIncrease in PWV over 1 year by 1.1 m/s
Baumann et al, 2014 [51]135 CKD Stage 2–4, 42 months follow-upAortic PWV ≥ 10 m/s an independent predictor of mortality; HR 5.1 (95% CI, 1.1 - 22.9)
Chandra et al, 2014 [52]240 CKD Stage 3–5, up to 48 months follow-upLow heart rate variability and high PWV associated with increase in first cardiovascular event; HR 1.19 (95%CI, 1.09 - 1.31)
Townsend et al, 2015 [9]
(CRIC study)
2800 CKD, 7-10 years follow-upIncrease in PWV according to CKD Stage by up to 1 m/s per year; increasing PWV associated with cognitive impairment, mortality, heart failure admissions.
Cseprekal et al, 2016 [53]94 CKD Stage 1–5 patients, median 52 months follow-upPWV related to cardiovascular events; other associations included increasing calciprotein particles
Krishnasamy et al, 2017 [19]42 CKD Stage 4 vs 40 healthy controls, 12 months follow-upCKD associated with higher PWV (9.77.6-11.7 vs 8.17.2-9.7 m/s), with mean progression of PWV 1.3 m/s over 12 months
Kim et al, 2017 [54, 55]
(KNOW-CKD)
2238 CKD Stage 1–5, over 10 years follow-upHigher PWV with increasing CKD stage; also associated with increased aortic calcification and reduced bone mineral density

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; CKD, chronic kidney disease;HR, hazard ratio;PWV, pulse wave velocity.
ASFAST, Atherosclerosis and Folic Acid Supplementation Trial.
CRIC, Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort.
KNOW-CKD, KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

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