International Journal of Hypertension / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Results from a Community-Based Survey in Rural Tanzania

Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants.

VariableAll participants
N = 3,000
n (%)
Males
N = 778
n (%)
Females
N = 2,222
n (%)
value

Age (years) (median (IQR))39 (31.0–48.0)41 (32.0–51.0)38 (30.8–47.0)<0.001
Age (years)
 25–341072 (35.7)238 (30.6)834 (37.5)<0.001
 35–44888 (29.6)208 (26.7)680 (30.6)
 45–54628 (20.9)182 (23.4)446 (20.1)
 55–64412 (13.7)150 (19.3)262 (11.8)

Wealth status
 Poorest694 (23.1)190 (24.4)504 (22.7)0.046
 Poor497 (16.6)137 (17.6)360 (16.2)
 Middle579 (19.3)150 (19.3)429 (19.3)
 Rich630 (21.0)134 (17.2)496 (22.3)
 Richest600 (20.0)167 (21.5)433 (19.5)

District
 Kilombero1500 (50.0)344 (44.2)1156 (52.0)<0.001
 Ulanga1500 (50.0)434 (55.8)1066 (48.0)

Marital status
 Never married383 (12.8)97 (12.5)286 (12.9)<0.001
 Married2144 (71.5)613 (78.8)1531 (68.9)
 Separated/divorced/widowed473 (15.8)68 (8.7)405 (18.2)

Education level
 No formal education297 (9.9)32 (4.1)265 (11.9)<0.001
 Primary education2411 (80.4)628 (80.7)1783 (80.2)
 Secondary education255 (8.5)99 (12.7)156 (7.0)
 College/university education37 (1.2)19 (2.4)18 (0.8)

Occupation
 Farmer2775 (92.5)730 (93.8)2052 (92.3)<0.001
 House wife79 (2.6)0 (0.0)72 (3.2)
 Employed27 (0.9)14 (1.8)13 (0.6)
 Business80 (2.7)25 (3.2)55 (2.5)
 Others39 (1.3)9 (1.2)30 (1.4)

Current smoking status
 No2824 (94.1)634 (81.5)2190 (98.6)<0.001
 Yes176 (5.9)144 (18.5)32 (1.4)

Current alcohol drinking status
 No2409 (80.3)547 (70.3)1862 (80.3)<0.001
 Yes591 (19.7)231 (29.7)360 (19.7)

Use of raw table salt
 Never446 (14.9)95 (12.2)351 (15.8)0.026
 Sometimes2351 (78.4)636 (81.7)1715 (77.2)
 Always203 (6.8)47 (6.0)156 (7.0)

Fruits consumption/week
 5–7 days238 (7.9)63 (8.1)175 (7.9)0.814
 1–4 days2168 (72.3)567 (72.9)1601 (72.1)
 Never594 (19.8)148 (19.0)446 (20.1)

Consumption of vegetables/week
 5–7 days1916 (63.9)433 (55.7)1483 (66.7)<0.001
 1–4 days1043 (34.8)333 (42.8)710 (32.0)
 Never41 (1.4)12 (1.5)29 (1.3)

History of diabetes mellitus
 No2971 (99.0)770 (99.0)2201 (99.1)0.838
 Yes29 (1.0)8 (1.0)21 (0.9)

Body mass index (BMI (kg/m2))
 Underweight93 (3.1)30 (3.9)63 (2.8)<0.001
 Normal1563 (52.1)531 (68.3)1032 (46.4)
 Overweight855 (28.5)170 (21.9)685 (30.8)
 Obese489 (16.3)47 (6.0)442 (19.9)

Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Mean SBP (SD)127.2 (20.8)131.1 (17.9)125.9 (20.8)<0.001
 Mean DBP (SD)83.5 (12.6)83.9 (11.9)83.3 (12.8)0.298

Blood pressure profile
 Normal BP954 (31.8)163 (21.0)791 (35.6)<0.001
 Prehypertension1198 (39.9)374 (48.1)824 (37.1)
 High BP (stage 1)500 (16.7)157 (20.2)343 (15.4)
 High BP (stage 2)348 (11.6)84 (10.8)264 (11.9)

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