International Journal of Hypertension / 2020 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

The Role of Lifestyle Factors in Controlling Blood Pressure among Hypertensive Patients in Two Health Facilities in Urban Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

Table 2

Association between lifestyle characteristics and blood pressure control.

VariableControlled BP
No n (%)Yes n (%) value

Nonmodifiable Factors
Mean age (±SD)61.2 ± 0.6164.1 ± 1.310.012
Age categories0.031
27–4515 (5.43)4 (4.76)
46–5553 (19.20)16 (19.05)
56–65125 (45.9)25 (29.76)
66–9483 (30.07)39 (46.43)
Sex0.009
Male90 (85.71)15 (14.29)
Female186 (72.94)69 (27.06)
Educational0.077
No formal education74 (80.43)18 (19.57)
Primary90 (82.57)19 (17.43)
Junior high56 (65.88)29 (34.12)
Secondary43 (75.44)14 (24.56)
Tertiary13 (76.47)4 (23.53)
Knowledge0.056
No knowledge145 (52.54)50 (59.52)
Moderate knowledge77 (27.90)27 (32.14)
High knowledge54 (19.57)7 (8.33)
Comorbidity<0.001
No69 (25)40 (47.62)
Yes207 (75)44 (52.38)
Number of pills<0.001
1.285 (30.80)46 (54.76)
2–4191 (69.20)38 (45.24)
Time since diagnosis
 1 year21 (7.61)12 (14.29)0.008
 2–5 years112 (40.58)21 (25.00)
 6–10 years91 (32.97)25 (29.76)
 >10 years52 (18.84)26 (30.95)
History of smoking0.017
Yes30 (10.87)2 (2.38)
No246 (89.13)82 (97.62)
Lifestyle factors
Alcohol consumption<0.001
No113 (40.94)64 (76.19)
Yes163 (59.06)20 (23.81)
Alcohol use (per unit)0.85 ± 0.830.31 ± 0.67<0.001
Duration of exercise/week<0.001
None183 (66.30)26 (30.95)
30 mins–1 hr82 (29.71)43 (51.19)
>1 hour11 (3.99)15 (17.86)
Major component in diet
Carbohydrates<0.001
No10 (3.62)21 (25.0)
Yes266 (96.38)63 (75.0)
Meat and fats0.001
No157 (69.7856 (90.32)
Yes68 (30.22)6 (9.68)
Fruit and vegetable<0.001
No177 (81.19)26 (38.81)
Yes41 (18.81)41 (61.19)
High sodium0.120
No193 (92.79)57 (98.28)
Yes15 (7.21)1 (1.72)
Total276 (76.67)84 (23.33)

Cell count less than 360 due to nonresponse abased on Fischer's exact test.

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