International Journal of Inflammation / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Heart Disease: Do Antioxidants Have a Role in Treatment and/or Prevention?

Table 1

Human proof-of-concept studies demonstrating effectiveness of various antioxidant regimens on cardiovascular endpoints.

Study InterventionEndpointAntiox Rx resultsPlacebo results value

SPACE [16]196Vit E 800 IU/dayComposite endpoint116%33%

IEISS [17]125Vit A 50,000 IU/day,
Vit C 1,000 mg/day,
Vit E 400 mg/day,
-carotene 25 mg/day
Individual component scores220.630.6“Sig. less”

VCE-MI [18]61Vit C&E 600 mg/daySAECG3No Δ “Sig. Δ”3<0.002

PART [19]101Probucol 1,000 mg/dayRestenosis p PCI23%58%

ASAP [20]520d-alpha-tocopherol 91 mg,
Vit C 250 mg/day
Carotide IMT0.011 mm/year-10.020 mm/year-1

MVP [21]317β-carotene 30,000 i.u.,
Vit C 500 mg/day,
Vit E 700 IU/day,
Probucol 500 mg/day
Restenosis p PCI28.9%38.9%“Sig. less”

SPACE: Secondary Prevention with Antioxidants of Cardiovascular disease in Endstage renal disease; IEISS: Indian Experiment of Infarct Survival Study; VCE-MI: Vitamins C&E on Myocardial Infarction; PART: Probucol Angioplasty Restenosis Trial; ASAP: Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention; MVP: Multivitamins and Probucol Study Group.
1Composite Endpoint: myocardial infarction (fatal and nonfatal), ischemic stroke, non-AV fistular peripheral vascular disease, and unstable angina.
2Individual Component Scores: mean infarct size (creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB gram equivalents), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, cardiac enzyme lactate dehydrogenase increased, and, QRS score in the electrocardiogram.
3SAECG: Signal-average electrocardiogram components consist of increase in mean QRS and low-amplitude (<40 microV) signal durations, a decrease in the root-mean-square voltage of the last 40 ms of the QRS complex.